STUDIES OF ATTACHMENT BEHAVIOR AND SEPARATION ANXIETY IN INFANTS
- Links between infant care and attachment theory -
The following eight studies conducted at Child Psychology Laboratory,
Seiwa College, are reviewed in the present paper.
Study l. The age at which the various attachment behaviors first appear,
and the relation between developmental quotient and intensity of attachment
behavior to attachment figures.
Study 2. Individual differences in children's behavior in strange-situation
procedure as devised by Ainsworth,Mary D.Salter.
Study 3. Stranger anxiety and solitude anxiety in the experimental
Study 4. Children's anxiety during the first three months after their
entrance into a day care center.
Study 5. Attachment behavior, separation anxiety, and stranger anxiety
in infants and toddlers in a day care center setting.
Study 6. The relationship between development of secure attachment
and mother's child rearing attitudes.
Study 7. The relationship between the age of entrance into the day
care centers and social development at the age of five.
Study 8. The relationship between the age of entrance into the day
care centers and intellectual development at the ages of 5 and 7.
Conclusion: Bowlby's attachment theory and the empirical findings of
his colleagues were verified to a certain degree by our research. His theoritical
formula concerning attachment behavior and separation anxiety seems to
be very useful for investigating the effects of day care centers and child
KEY WORDS: attachment behavior, separation anxiety.
My Approach to Developmental Psychology
The realms of my approach to developmental psychology during the 44
years since my graduation (from university) can be categorized as follows.
l. Fundamental study of Developmental Psychology
This includes : ( i ) the study of reversal congnition in infants,
( ii ) the developmental study of figure-congnition, (iii) the developmental
study of letter-congnition and (iv) the study of circumstantial factor
on the development of congnition. The results of these studies have been
accordingly reported to academic associations, followed by their contribution
to academic journals. Then they have been published after about 10 years,
which are in 1966, 1975 and 1991.
2. Study of the link between theory and practice
This study is based on the results of the fundamental study of development
psychology and is concerned with the relation of development, education
and instruction. I have contributed 109 articles in the educational journals.
These articles have been systematized and published in 1986 and 1988.
3. Study of the developmental process of a brother and a sister through
My family comprises three generations, which has made it possible for
me to capture the developmental process of two grandchildren continually
from birth. The data are made up of photographs and observation (records).
purpose of the study is : ( i ) study of the setting of developmental standard
and ( ii ) study of intellectual, moral and physical education scenes inside
Key Words : figure-congnition, letter-congnition, developmental process,
A Study of F.W.A. Froebel's Mother-Play from the Viewpoint of Educational
-To grow a child's dawning mind-
Froebel's Mother-Play is the only book that he published to explain
his ideas about young children's education. In another article, he wrote
that he set not only his educational aim, objectives, methods, ways and
means in this book but also the opportunities in the homelife or educating
young child through his developmental phases.
According to his words, this study begins to clear up the ways of young
children's education in this book. In this study, the following two points
l . This book is strucrured like Figure 5.
2 . Froebel explained how to combine the educational aim and objectives
with a child's development;
First, Froebel set his educational aim. Then, to realize it, he described
a child from three phases: (1) limbs and senses, (2) personal relationship
to his mother and others as an expression of his self feeling, and (3)
dawning mind. However, by using just these phases, he felt he could not
truly capture a child's developmental growth. Thus, he considered how these
phases appears in a child. Finally, he showed educational objectives, from
a child's developmental appearance to its goal by using and trainning it.
In this manner, Froebel showed how to combine educational aim, objectives,
and a child's developmental phases. We can say that it is one of the answers
to the modern educational theme of how best to combine these elements.
Key Words : Structure, Relation between aim and a child's development.
The Frdbel method in the "Programmi 1914" of Italy
-through Pasquali and Agazzi-
In Italy, as in other countries, the Frdbel method was introduced
in about the mid-nineteenth century. Since then it has had considerable
influence on Italian early-childhood education.
In this paper I will examine the influence the Frdbel method has had
in Italy and how it came to be accepted by the Department of Education,
in particular, I willexamine the first programs issued in 1914 <Teaching,
programs and schedules for nursery-schools and kindergartens>. Specifically,
I wil1 deal with how, through the ideas of Pasquali and his collaborator
Agazzi, Frdbel's ideas gained acceptance in the following five areas "avoidance
of the 3Rﾕs concretization of gifts and occupations"
"liberal <0ccupations equal plays> and individual respect" "Garden"
Key Words. : the Frbbel system in Italy, the first programs issued in
1914, Pasquali, Agazzi.
原田 碩三・原田 昭子・坂下喜佐久・長谷川 勝一
Footwear and the Development of Preschool Children's Feet
Sekisou Harada・ Akiko Harada・ Kisaku Sakasita・ Syouiti Hasegawa
As the development of feet in preschool children has not been very
good, we undertook a study of 975 preschool children in Osaka city and
Hyogo prefecture. We took imprints of feet at two kinds of schools: schools
where zouri are worn and schools where shoes are worn. We estimated the
shape of long inner arch, foot length and width, heel-width and the center
of gravity be regression. These factors were closely related to age, in
months, height, weight, foot length, ect. We analyzed these aspects of
regression and measures of hallux valgus, foot girth/foot length, heel
width/ foot width and heel-width/foot width. The results showed that only
foot width and the center of gravity in the right foot were similar in
the two different kinds of schools, and that all other aspects were better
in schools where zouri were worn.
Key Words : Long Inner Arch, Hallux Valgus, Foot Girth/Foot Length,
Heel Width/Foot Width.
The Study of Cooking in Early Education
-The objectives and the method from the constructivist view-
In Some kindergartens and day care centers, teachers provide children
with opportunities to cook, simply because children like to cook. These
opportunities are unfortunately provided without clearly conceptualized
objectives or educationally valid procedures.
The writer proposed cooking activities as science education from the
point of view of Piaget and Kamii's Theory, namely, constructivism. According
to Piaget and Kamii, the goal of education is to promote autonomy in children.
Tese researchers belived that science education could give children opportunities
for thinking and acting autonomously. As the cook, children are motivated
to act on objects and to think about them, actively.
The writer proposed five objectives in both the socioemotional and
intellectual realms. She also proposed methods of cooking which helped
children to cook autonomously. The method were discribed in eight articles
which included the use of a recipe, reducing the teacher's authority, and
promoting interaction among children.
Key Words : cooking, science education, Piaget and Kamii's Theory, autonomy.