Trends and Issues of Pre-school Education and Care in the United States
This articls in divided into two parts. In part one, I explain why and
how I had became interested and involved in the education and care for
early childhood even though my main field of research was on curriculum
theories and practices at school level comparing Japan and U.S.
I have an honor of translating several books written by J.S. Bruner
including a famous look ﾒthe Process of Education" and introducing his
theories to Japanese teachers with the purpose of innovating Japanese education
to keep up with the world-wide trends. It is widely known that new curricula
at the school level and pre-school education and care were greatly influened
by cognitive psychologists including Bruner.
In part two, I try to follow the origin of Project Head Start, a kind
of federal government social policy, pros and cons of its past practices
and implications for a coming new century with additional information and
my comments on various types of pre-school education and care program.
佐々木 宏子 元木 弘子
A Study on Preschool Children's Humorous Expressions for Coordinating
Hiroko Sasaki Hiroko Motoki
Over the past 10 years, W Yochien (a kindergarten in T prefecture) has
asked both parents and teachers to collect interesting expressions of their
children and pupils. For the past 10 years, W Yochien has published those
expressions which were selected by the class teachers. They expected that
teachers and parents would develop sensitivity for the children's psychology.
During the last 10 years, We chose 150 humorous expressions which coordinate
interpersonal relations out of 3,489 expressions by 1,359 children aged
4 and 5 years old who attended W Yochien.
We classified all humorous expressions into three categories according
to the following motivations : (A) Offending toward Discipline, (B) Disagreement
and (C) Spontaneous Humor.
The most important results were as follows:
l) 80.7% of humorous expressions were collected by mothers.
2) 73.3% of humorous expressions were told to mothers.
3) In all the 150 humorous expressions that coordinate interpersonal
Offending toward Discipline appeared 58.0%, Disagreement, 18.7% and
Spontaneous Humor, 23.3%.
4) The largest number (67.2%) of humorous expressions to mothers derived
from Offending toward Discipline.
5) Thc largest number (42.59%) of humorous expressions to people (fathers,
teachers, grandmothers, friends 'and so on) other than mothers derived
from Spontaneous Humor.
Key Words : Preschool children. Humorous expressions. Interpersonal
Rorschach responses of young children with LD
The purpose of this study is to reveal some features of cognitive abilities
and emotional problems of LD young children, by comparing their responses
in Rorschach test with those of normal young children.
The subjects were 22 LD young children (16 boys and 6 girls ; the average
age 5 : 10) and 18 normal young children (7 boys and 11 girls ; the average
age 6 : 6).
The results were as follows
1. Although LD young children had passive contacts with the external
world, they appeared to have proper social adaptability and their social
behaviors did not deviate from accepted standards (R, Rej, RT, R1T, R1TNc,
R1Tcc, H%, A%, CR and DR showed the normal range of their values).
However, their suppression of impulses and emotional complexes seemed
to be superficial (M < ΣC, FM+m > Fc+c+C', VIII IX X/R% > 30%).
2. Basically their cognitive abilities were apt to display serious cognitive
confusions (as compared to the high values of Low W, Low D, Wa, Wv, Da,
Dv, and F%, the values of High W, High D, F+ %, _F+ % and R+ % were verylow).
Moreover, their several signs (the high values of W-, DW, D-, DdD) suggested
childish verbalizations and confublations.
3. Concerning experimental balances, they indicated extratensive types
with emotional instability.
They were very poor at emotional control and easily disturbed by emotional
The test indicated that LD young children showed impulsive agitations
and explosive reactions easily and very often (M < _C, FM+m > Fc+c+C',
VllloIXo X/R% > 30%, pathological cognitive disabilities).
Key Words : LD (learning disabilities). Young children with LD. Rorschach
Cognitive disorder. Emotional disturbance.
Theoretical Study of Early Childhood and Development from the view point
of Open System and Tragling
This study theorizes development of early childhood with the two concepts
of Open System and Tragling (clinging ; carrying) from the view point of
Firstly, Open System indicates that the organism (human being) always
interacts with the outer world, and forms a system with other. Consequently
the infant's development goes well only when there is a structured infant-nurturer
Secondly, Tragling shows the characteristics that an infant is brought
up by a nurturer through carrying or clinging, and Tragling is an essential
function of human beings as primates. In this study, Portmann's theory
is criticized, because he did not see an infant as a competent existence
and did not consider the infant-nurturer system.
The applied study indicated significant effects of an enhanced environment
in the residential nursery on the development of young children. Good surroundings
to raise children soundly are conceptualized not only in institutions but
in families with the two concepts of Open System and Tragling.
Key Words : Organicism, Open System, Tragling (clinging),
The 1990's Reality of the Dream Society
-Changes of Kibbutzim and Early Childhood Educare-
Emiko Hannah Ishigaki
This paper consists 3 parts ; changes in Israeli society, changes in
Kibbutz society and changes in Kibbutz childcare.
Since my first visit to Kibbutzim in 1974, I have visited Kibbutzim
7 times in 20 years and watched changes in Kibbutzim and childcare within
them. The history of changes in Kibbutzim is extremely interesting ; in
the half of a century from 1910 when a Kibbutz was founded to 1960s, the
Common Sleeping System was in all its glory, and parents were sleeping
in their own apartments while children were living and sleeping in children's
houses. The 1970s, criticism and arguments arose. In the 1980s, some Kibbutzim
adopted the Family Sleeping System. And, in the first half of 1990s, the
Family Sleeping System was established in all Kibbutzim.
In my 7th visit to Israel for about one month from December 1993 to
January 1994, I had opportunities to observe various changes in Israeli
society itself, the changes in Kibbutzim which were affected by the society
as well as the reality of Early Childhood Education and Care in Kibbutzim,
which had undergone a violent change. I will explain and discuss these
changes representing the latest statistical data together.
Principal contents are as follows :
I . Changes in Israeli society ;
§ In dynamic trends of population
§ In economic and educational policies of the government
§ In national living and awareness
II. Changes in Kibbutz society ;
§ In dynamic trends of population
§ In methods of Kibbutz management
§ In Kibbutz living and awareness
Ill. Changes in childcare system of Kibbutzim ;
§ In sleeping system
§ In methods of childcare management
§ In the contents of childcare
Key Words : Kibbutz , Israeli childcare.