||The Criterion Referenced Evaluation in Early Childhood Education|
||Three Phases of Teaching Concerning The Acquisition of Number Conservation in Early Childhood|
||A Variety of Writing Patterns in the First Stage of the Development of Infantsﾕ Letters : A Case Study|
||The Development of Pulmonary Function and Nutrition in Preschool Children|
||Implications of Scripts Acquisition Processes : From a Case Study of a Five-year-old Chinese Boy|
|Sin Sun Kang||
||A Study on the Role of Perspective-Taking in Childrenﾕs Referential Communication|
||The Characteristics of Preschool Teachers by the Egograms|
Art Expression of Children and Art Education Movement in the Taisho Era
-Through an Analysis of Childrenﾕs Drawings Published in KODOMO-NO-KUNI(Children's Land)-
The Criterion Referenced Evaluation in Early Childhood Education
There are at present two antagonistic theory in the educational evaluation, one norm--referenced evaluation and other criterion-referenced evaluation. On the evaluation of academic achievement, it is clear that criterion-referenced evaluation is correct in the view point of science of education and the curriculum construction theory. So, in this paper, I want to inquiry the possibility of application of criterion-referenced evaluation theory in early childhood education, especially kindergarten education.
In the practice of criterion-referenced evaluation, it is very necessary to set up the performance objective in early childhood education. In this case, I think there are five fundamental instructional areas in kindergarten education, they are ・ health ・ intelligence and recognition ・ skill ・social-relationship ・ affection. I am going to present the possibility to set up the performance objective in these areas.
Key Word : ・ norm-referenced evaluation, criterion-referenced evaluation ・ academic achievement ・ performance objective ・ kindergarten education ・ instructional area in kindergarten education
Three Phases of Teaching Concerning The Acquisition of Number Conservation
in Early Childhood
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of three phases of teaching concerning the acquisition of number conservation in early childhood. Subjects were 42 3-year-olds, 74 4-year-olds and 44 5-year-olds. 160 non-conservers were due to a pre-test. Teaching number conservation was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, the subjects were taught repeating number and counting. In the second phase, they were taught set of numbers and numbers in order. In the final phase, they were taught one-to-one correspondence. These teaching methods were used by both observational learning and direct instruction. As the results, the effects of three phases of teaching concerning the acquisition of number conservation were not found in 3-year-olds, but were found significantly in 4-and 5-year-olds. The effect of teaching was maintained significantly till after three months. The effects of teaching number conservation did not generalize extensively to length and substance. In teaching types, a part learning method was more effective than a repeated part learning one.
Key Word : Number Conservation, Three Phases of Teaching, Counting, One-to-one Correspondence, Learning Method
高橋 敏之 久保 由美子
A Variety of Writing Patterns in the First Stage of the Development
of Infantsﾕ Letters : A Case Study
The subject, Kei, started scribbling at １; l, 6, and copying letters at 2 ; 6, 12 along with drawing. In his previous studies, the author termed this primitive form of letters 'infants' letters' and investigated their origin and development and the process of learning Hiragana as well as the transformation of infants' letters' in relation to letter learning. It is hypothesized that infants' letters develop when infants have a recognition of and a desire of communication while they cannot map thoughts onto letters due to insufficient knowledge of Hiragana. In order to test this hypothesis, it is necessary to identify the frequency with which infants' letters appear in their drawings and to analyze their writing patterns, developmental sequences, and quantitative changes .
Key Word : infants letters, the writing pattern, basic scribbling, written
language system, the letter
The Development of Pulmonary Function and Nutrition in Preschool Children
In recent years, energy intake has been adequate for children according to their diets. Nevertheless, when the results of nutrition are assessed in terms of the pulmonary function test, a significant gap between recommended dietary allowances and the actual amount of nutrient intakes can been seen. In this analysis, subjects were divided into four groups (A-D) based on the evaluation of maximum respiratory capacity and one second V.C. ratio. 1) The A group shows that the intakes of protein, fat and cereals in proportion to calorie, were adequate. 2) The B group shows that cereals and vitamin Bl intakes were insufficient. 3) The C group shows that the intake of fat and protein was high and that there was an unbalance between animal proteins and vegetable proteins. 4) The D group shows that the intake of fat and protein was high while that of vitamin C was low. The above result also suggests that the quality and quantity of food, the intake of calories as well as vitamins and minerals possibly play a role in raising the plum-nary function.
Key Words : Pulmonary Function Test, Nutrition, Food Consumption Methods, Preschool Children
Implications of Scripts Acquisition Processes : From a Case Study of
a Five-year-old Chinese Boy
An increase in the number of foreigners residing in Japan in 1980's has brought about a surge of foreign preschoolers attending Japanese day-care centers. This pa-per is to describe characteristics of scripts acquisition process of a five-year-old Chinese boy. Scripts are referred to as an ordered sequence of actions which are appropriate in a particular spatial-temporal context. Data were obtained from participant observations and interviews conducted from Oct., 1993 to Apr., 1994 in a public day-care center in Tokyo. The major findings and contributions of the study are as follows : 1) Particular sets of scripts are practiced by four-year-olds in the play and during mealtimes at the center ; 2) how the five-year-old Chinese boy acquires given sets of the scripts has been portrayed ; and 3) the following factors seem to significantly affect the scripts acquisition process : a) the level of understanding of social meanings which are embedded in the scripts, b) motivation toward conducting the script actions, c) the degree of shared experiences of particular social situations in which given sets of scripts are practiced, and d) the level of communicative competence in Japanese.
Key Words : a Chinese boy, a Japanese day-care center, scripts acquisition,
A Study on the Role of Perspective-Taking in Childrenﾕs Referential
This study was designed to investigate the role of the perspective-taking in children's referential communication. It was based on the theoretical assumption that the perspective-taking ability has an important effect upon children's referential communication. Thirty-two kindergartners, one hundred thirty-two elementary school children, are investigated by means of perspective-taking task and referential communication task. The results of the investigation indicate : 1) There is significant relation between affective perspective-taking and cognitive perspective-taking. 2) There is significant relation between perspective-taking ability and referential communication ability. 3) by using analysis of multiple regression, effect of perspective-taking (affective, cognitive) ability upon the children's referential communication was significant.
Key Words : Referential Communication, perspective-taking, affective
原田 碩三 原田 昭子 長谷川 勝一
The Characteristics of Preschool Teachers by the Egograms
The Egograms; transaction analyzing five values of cp (Critical Parent) , np (Nurturing Parent), a (Adult) , fc (Free Child), ac (Adapted Child) are used to know "How I see you and you see me". Our objective is to know the personal characteristics of preschool teachers through the use of Egograms, because we think their points of np and fc are high. Our results show that there are more preschool teachers than mothers, who are en-courage type which is cp <np and fc>ac. Many students in preschool education, and, mothers of children with high motor ability, show the same characteristics as pre-school teachers.
Key Words : the Characteristics of Preschool Teachers, the Egograms
An Art Expression of Children and Art Education Movement in the Taisho
During the Taisho Era, many children enthusiastically contributed their poems, drawings, and songs to children's magazines for publication. This proliferation of children's art expression was due principally to advances in education movement, children's expand creativity, and to development of new materials, such as crayons, paints, and so on. The purpose of this study was : 1) to clarify the children's ages, sex, and living region ; 2) to analyze drawings by children in this magazine ; 3) to gain an under-standing of children's expression of that era by analyzing their works. The paper focuses on the early years of the magazine(1923-1930) Followings are the main characteristics : A. Properties of children a) the total number of winning drawings for this magazine b) the boy/girl ratio c) ages d) living region B. Themes of drawings C. Materials of drawings D. Evaluation of drawings
Key Words : Art Education Movement, KODOMO-NO-KUNI(Childrenﾕs land),