||Infant Development and Autism|
||Variability and Developmental Change of Head-Feet Expression Forms in an Infant's Human Figure Drawings|
||The meaning of physical exercise in a kindergarten's athletic meeting|
||Developing a Combination 'Sugoroku' as an educational Plaything for Children in Nursery Schools and Kindergartens|
of a Teacher Education Program to Promote an Understanding of Children
-in Case of In-service Kindergarten Teachers-
|Keiko Ueno Omri||
of Educational Activity in the State Maternal Schools (Scuola materna)(1991)
-Influences of the Agazzi and Montessori methods-
||A Study on Reception of Montessori Method ; NOGAMI in Taisho era.|
||Pre-School Children and Their Mothers in Different Cultures|
||The Pictorial Magazine "OTOGIETOKI KODOMO"|
Infant Development and Autism
One purpose of this article is to consider a paradigm of infant development. The other one is to in-vestigate basic pathology of autism , using the paradigm. Infants are innately programmed to fonn selec-tive interpersonal relations. The basis of their interpersonal behavior is the relationship between mother and child , which guarantees infant development. In addition , this formation of mother-child bonds is due to the sync.hronization of their vitality and emotion rhythm. This is a biological and congenital mechanism , by which infants , as they grow , can go along with various people emotionally and can open interpersonal network. Examining pathology of autism from this point of view , that is , the above-mentioned paradigm , we can say as follow : Autism is a case where brain dysfunction lowers vitality and disconnects emotion rhythm .
Key Word : Infant development , Affective self , Emotional availability , Social referencing , Autism
Variability and Developmental Change of Head-Feet Expression Forms in
an Infant's Human Figure Drawings
In infants' human figure drawings, we can find forms of expressions which combine a head with arms, Iegs, and a trunk in a variety of ways. Expressions for human figures used by infants have been described as 'Kpoffusser,' 'tetard,' 'bonhomme tetard,' 'figure without a body,' and 'head-feet representation.' In this study those human figure expressions are described as 'head-feetexpression forms.' There seem to be many problems unsolved about the structure and the nature of the expression forms. It is, therefore, necessary to observe an infant's human figure drawings in detail, and to extract all 'head-feet expression forms.' In this paper, an attempt will be made to investigate the variability and developmental change of head-feet expression forrns in an infant' s human figure drawings.
Key words : human figure drawings, head-feet expression forms, developmental change, tetard Kpoffusser
The meaning of physical exercise in a kindergarten's athletic meeting
In order to explore how physical exercises are practiced in kindergartens, ways of exercise for the relay race of the athletic meeting were analyzed. Scenes of exercise were observed through a one-year-long fieldwork in an kindergarten, from which records three-day relay practices and plays were picked up to examine. As a result, when children spontaneously played re-lay race, they were seen to compete as a pair, rather than as group competition. When teachers lead the children, they required them to compete as a group and to observe strictly the rules such as not-jutting-out from the track. But the running children observed loosely those rules and seemed to enjoy the chasing-running relations with the partners. These analyses with examination of the contemporary and historical literatures suggested that children's physical exercises under the guidance of teachers in kindergartens facilitate the gradual transition from body relations of children's play towards sports comforting to collective rules.
Key Word : Kindergarten, Athletic meeting, Relay Race, Phycical Exercise, Play
Developing a Combination 'Sugoroku' as an educational Plaything for Children in Nursery Schools and Kindergartens
The purpose of this study is to develop a plaything for children in nursery schools and kinder-gartens as a means of solving some of the problems they are facing today. In order to obtain a clue to how such a plaything can be developed, several types of the oldest Japanese indoor plaything 'sugoroku' are historically analyzed. Its advantages include : １ ) it attracts children be-cause it exploits the principle of competition by chance and 2) it contains such pedagogical elements as helping children develop concepts of sociality and number, which other playthings do not necessarily share. One of its disadvantages, however, is that it is limited as a plaything due to its inflexibility in structure. An attempt is made, therefore, to give a flexible structure to 'sugoroku' so that children can play with it each time in different patterns and with varying degrees of difficulty. Its flexibility can be expected to boost the variety of ways it can be played and to yield some pedagogical significance which has not been shared by the traditional 'sugoroku'.
Key Word : plaything, princeple of competition by chance, pedagogical significance, combination 'sugoroku', flexibility of playthings
Development of a Teacher Education Program to Promote an Understanding
of Children (・)
This research, based on interviews with each teacher, investigates how kindergarten teachers develop an understanding of children through their actual teaching experiences; elucidates char-acteristic aspects of their understanding on each level of their experiences; and examines prob-lems and strategies for understanding children. I aimed at comprehensive development of the teacher education program from the pre-service to in-service levels. Having already pursued the program on the former level, here, in this research, I developed the program on the latter level.
Key Word : understanding children, development model for kindergarten teachers,teacher education, in-service teacher training
オムリ 上野 慶子
<0ri-entations of Educational Activity in the State Maternal Schools
(Scuola materna)(1991) >in Italy
Keiko Ueno Omri
In this study, I'll analyze and examine influences of the Agazzi and
Montessori methods on the <0ri-entations of Educational Activity in
the State Maternal Schools> revised in 1991.
Key Word : Orientations for material schools ' 91, the Agazzi method, the Montessori method.
A Study on Reception of Montessori Method ; NOGAMI in Taisho era.
The Montessori Method is a method of education practiced by Maria Montessori in the Casa dei Bambini(Children's House)in the slum quarter of Rome in 1907 since then many educators in the world have been influenced by the Montessori Method. The introduction of the Montessori Method in Japan began in the Taisho era. How was this education method receved in Japan ? Studies about this topic are few. This paper focused on Toshio Nogami . He was a professor at the Kyoto Imperial University , and introduced the Montessori Method in a lot of lectures in the early Taisho era. After obervations in Europe and in America from 1913 to 1916 ,Nogami criticized the Montessori Method. The Montessori Method in Taisho era in Japan was influenced by Nogami .
The contents of this paper are as follows :
・ The purpose of this paper
・ Inroduction of Montessori Method by Toshio Nogami before observation in Europe and America
・ Visitation to Children's House of Montessori Method in Italy by Toshio Nogami
・ Criticism of Montessori Method by Toshio Nogami after observation in Europe and America
Pre-School Children and Their Mothers in Different Cultures
As more and more families live in countries other than their own. the number of children that are ef-fected is increasing. Though we find many studies of school-aged children. we seldom see studies of pre-school children. I have focused my study on young children living in different cultures. and their mothers who influence them most. I have done experimental research of Japanese pre-school children and their mothers living in USA. I have visited and observed American schools and interviewed and gave questionnaires to 15 American teachers. and also interviewed and gave questionnaires to 58 Japa-nese mothers. I have done a comparative study of my previous research "Study of Parents of Foreign Students in Japanese Pre-schools. "and "Pre-school Children and Their Mothers Living in Other Cul-tures" Through these studies the differences and things common have become clear. I will continue to do research to understand these two aspects.
Key Word : Young childrensﾕ self-actualization in different cultures
: Comprative study of intercultural
絵雑誌『お伽絵解 こども 』と明治期の大阪の幼稚園
The Pictorial Magazine "OTOGIETOKI KODOMO"
This study focuses on the relation of Otogietoki KODOMO and kindergartens in Osaka in the Meiji era. The pictorial magazine Otogietoki KODOMO published from April 1904 to 1911 by Jidoubi-ikukai which founded in Osaka. This was the first full colored pictorial magazine published for preschool and kindergarten children in Japan. The editors were newspapermen of Osaka Asahi Shinbunsha. Shoukai Kubota took charge of the texts. Akimine Tujimura took charge of the illustrations. The contents include kindergarten's curriculum of Play, Song, Story, Art and the introduction of kindergarten's activity. The editors did not lapse into nationalism in the time of Russo-Japanese War. They had the real jounalistic point of view and real affection for all children in the world. They tried to reform young children's picturebooks. For that purpose, they contacted with the wide range of early childhood educators. Early childhood educators also promoted the spread of kindergartens. The editors and the educators contributed to create the new children's culture and promoted the importance of kindergartens.
Key Word : pictorial magazine, Otogietoki KODOMO, kindergarten, The Meiji era