||A Study on Maria Kraus-Boelte and Establishment of Froebelian Kindergarten|
||The Frbbel's Educational Toy for Babies and Little Children -Focused on Ball -|
||A Study on the Folk Tale Picturebooks in Okinawa Written by Hiroshi Gima - Through an Analysis of the "Retelling"-|
Children Try to Make Music
-Through the Observation of their Muslcal Behavior with Tone-Chime Instruments -
Comparison of Cognitive Abilities and Emotional Features of Verbal and
Non-verbal LD Children (Late Young Childhood)
-An Approach by Rorschach Test -
||-A Study on Mothers' Child-Rearing Anxiety with Preschool-aged Children to Rear their Children. -|
and Developmental Change of
Head-Feet Expression Forms in an Infant's Human Figure Drawings
Children in Aggrieved Situations
-A Case Study on Kindergarten Teachers in Five-Years-Olds Classes -
|Kang Sin Sun||
||Peer Relationships and Communication Skills ( I ) -The Role of Social Status and Gender -|
A Study on Maria Kraus-Boelte and Establishment of Froebelian Kindergarten
In this paper, the author intends to study the role of German kindergarten leaders who contributed greatly in establishing Froebelian kindergarten in the United States. Elizabeth Peabody, who was the organizer of the kindergarten movement in America, had strong desire to establish a true Froebelian kindergarten and to disseminate Froebells educational theories. So she invited German kindergarten leaders in order to show true Froebelian kindergarten practice and to train Froebelian kindergarten teachers. The German leaders worked hard however, not all of them were successful in their tasks. Maria Boelte (1ater known as Maria Kraus-Boelte after got married to John Kraus) was the most successful leader in realizing Peabodyﾕs requests. After one year teaching at Henrietta Hanes's girls school in New York, Maria Kraus-Boelte opened a model kindergarten and the New York Normal Training School for Kindergarten Teachers. The curriculum and method of training were almost same as those which were practiced in her home country. The graduates of this school became kindergarten teachers and joined the kindergarten movement to open Froebelian kindergartens. The author examines the curriculum and teaching method of the model kindergarten and training method of the kindergarten teacher at the New York Normal Training School for Kindergarten Teachers, then explains the establishing process of Froebelian Kindergarten in the United States.
key words : Maria Kraus-Boelte, Froebelian kindergarten, Kindergarten
The Frbbel's Educational Toy for Babies and Little Children
Frobel's educational toys have great effect on Japanese education, but
they were not hat been introduced to Japan in the complete form of them.
There were only 6 gifts intoduced to Japan out of the 10 gifts. Working
materials were confused with educational toys. This paper is primarily
concerned with the introduction to and the inquiry into Frobel's first
giit. Fr6bel's first gift is 4cm (diametor) balls, which was dyed in 6
colors : red, blue, yellow, green, orange, and purple. Frobel's determined
the size of the ball, one- year- old child to small enough for hold in
his hand. The surface of it was coverd with dyed sheep's skin. Fr6bel designated
wooden sphere that was covered with the dyed sheep skin as Full Ball, and
the grease woolen ball that covered with the dyed sheep skin as Empty Ball.
The way of playing with first Gift classified into 3 types : imitating
play based on life-style ; sensory play due to the beauty style of temporal
change ; learning play in the cognition of the global system. Frobel plaied
high valued on sensorial approachi, but Japanese education stressed the
application of linguistically oriented Intellect for little children. The
first gift wish regard to his sensorial approach, is worth further attention
and rewarding research.
A Study on the Folk Tale Picturebooks in Okinawa Written by Hiroshi
The aims of this research are the following two :
key words : Hiroshi Gima, the fork tale, picturebooks, Okinawa, retelling
How Children Try to Make Music
In this paper I will report how children try to make music with tone-chime instruments. In most kindergartens, childrenfs musical activities with instruments are to play the musical works chosen by teachers. When children are taught how to treat or how to play instruments, they learn only to imitate the order in the work (the correct melodies or rhythms) . From these lessons, The childrenfs creativity, what they are interested in, how they feel, and how they make music, can never grow up. Therefore, I tried to observe childrents spontaneous musical behaviors with tone-chime instruments in this study. I visited S-Kindergarten and observed classes of 5-6 year olds for about 8 months, and I researched by using video tape recordings and taking notes. Through this observation, I was able to fmd that children developed many kinds of music making activities with instruments, in which they had their own meanings, purposes, and processes in which they organized their sounds. Moreover I maintain "How musical children are" , when they make music with their own ways.
key-words : tone-chime instruments, childrenfs spontaneity, musical behaviors, music making
A Comparison of Cognitive Abilities and Emotional Features of Verbal
and Non-verbal LD Children (Late Young Childhood)
The purpose of the paper was to examine the cognitive abilities and
the emotional features of children with verbal and non verbal LD. The subjects
were 25 verbal LD children (22 boys, 3 girls, average age 6 : 3, WISC-R
VIQ 96.3 ± 18.90, PIQ 112.0 ± 13.86, FIQ 105.1 ± 18.22) and 40 non verbal
LD children (35 boys, 5 girls, average age 6 : 5, WISC-R VIQ 108.2 ± 18.66,
PIQ 95.0 ±17.68, FIQ 102.3 ± 20.62). The results were as follows :
B. Non-verbal LD children,
key words : ・ LD ・ subtype ・Verbal LD ・Non-verbal LD ・Rorschach
-A Study on Mothers Child-Rearing Anxiety with Preschool-aged Children to Rear their Children. -
This study was conducted to find out conditions to help mothers with preschool-aged children to rear children. Mothers were given a set of questionnaires consisted of child rearing anxiety (CRA) , parenting daily hassle, social support from their husband and other people, a scale measurlng mothersf coping and others. Correlational analysis revealed that newly constructed CRA scale had a high level of reliability and validity. Substantial support from their spouse moderated the influence of CRA. Emotional and substantial support from other people in the community negatively related CRA Asking social support positively related CRA. Social support from their hasband and other people moderated the irnpact of their CRA. We can be fairly certain that social support from their spouse and community is essential to helping mothers with young children to rear them.
key words : child rearing anxiety scale, parenting daily hassle, social
Variability and Developmental Change of
In infants' human figure drawings, we can find forms of expressions which combine a head with arms, Iegs, and a trunk in a variety of ways. Expressions for human figures used by infants have been described as 'Kpoffusser,' 'tetard,' 'bonhomme tetard,' 'figure without a body,' and 'head-feet representation.' In this study those human figure expressions are described as 'head-feetexpression forms.' There seem to be many problems unsolved about the structure and the nature of the expression forms. It is, therefore, necessary to observe an infant's human figure drawings in detail, and to extract all 'head-feet expression forms.' In this paper, an attempt will be made to investigate the variability and developmental change of head-feet expression forrns in an infant' s human figure drawings.
Key words : human figure drawings, head-feet expression forms, developmental
change, tetard Kpoffusser
西山 修・片山 美香・謝 文慧
Understanding Children in Aggrieved Situations
Osamu Nishiyama, Mika Katayama, and Hsieh Wen-Huei
In aggrieved situations, what kinds of intervention do preschoolers expect from their teachers? And how do their teachers cognize these individual expectations? To clear these questions and to grope how intervention should be, 82 five-year-olds were interviewed clinically, their teacher were asked to fill out questionnaires and their classes were observed participantly. By taking notice of 2 five-year-olds classes, this study examined the differences between children's expectations ant teachers' cognitions by means of "type m quantification" and "cross tables". The primary result5 were as follows : (1) It became possible to visually represent the differences between preschoolers' expectations for teachers' intervention and teachers' cognition to preschoolers' expectations Two classes were significantly different in degree of understanding children in aggrieved situation (2) There were certain personal biases in teachers' cognition. These teachers' cognitive biases were different in situation. Finally, this study draw some conclusions about teachers' intervention in aggrieved situation and propose some directions for future work.
Key Words : 保育者、介入、幼児理解、被攻撃場面, Kindergarten teacher
, intervention, Understanding children , aggreieved situation
Peer Relationships and Communication Skills ( I )
Sin Sun Kang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social status and communication skills in preschool children. Using peer nominations, as acquainted preschool children were classified as liked, disliked, or low impact. Children were videotaped in free playing interactions in which one child entered the play of a pair of same-sex peers. In Duaring the initiation of activity skills, Iiked children provided explanations about ongoing play to peers. Disliked children used higher proportion of commands, and low impact children used higher proportion of behavioral initiation. Disliked girls used lower proportion of acceptance than did any other group. The rejection skills of children revealed great differences between the genders. Boys used the behavioral methods and girls showed higher proportion of verbal methods. Boys displayed aggression and girls expressed more negative emotion. It is suggested that a child's pattern of ~articaption in a play group may contribute to social status. In summary, Iiked children were coope.rative, disliked children were incooperative and solitary, and low impact children were conservative terms of participation attitude. Finally, this study showed that children's nonverbal behavior also plays an important role in peer interaction.
key word : communication skill, social status, preschool children, host,