Original Articles
Jitsuo Kuroda
Links between infant care and attachment theory
Toshitaka Tanaka
My Approach to Developmental Psychology
Kinuko Kodama
A Study of F.W.A. Froebel's Mother-Play from the Viewpoint of Educational Methodology 
- To grow a child's dawning mind -
Keiko Ueno
The Frdbel method in the "Programmi 1914" of Italy 
- through Pasquali and Agazzi -
Sekisou Harada

Akiko Harada

Kisaku Sakasita

Syouiti Hasegawa

Footwear and the Development of Preschool Children's Feet
Eiko Ohtomo
The Study of Cooking in Early Education
- The objectives and the method from the constructivist view -


- 乳幼児保育とアタッチメント理論の接点 -

黒田 実郎

- Links between infant care and attachment theory -

Jitsuo Kuroda

The following eight studies conducted at Child Psychology Laboratory, Seiwa College, are reviewed in the present paper.
Study l. The age at which the various attachment behaviors first appear, and the relation between developmental quotient and intensity of attachment behavior to attachment figures. 
Study 2. Individual differences in children's behavior in strange-situation procedure as devised by Ainsworth,Mary D.Salter. 
Study 3. Stranger anxiety and solitude anxiety in the experimental setting. 
Study 4. Children's anxiety during the first three months after their entrance into a day care center. 
Study 5. Attachment behavior, separation anxiety, and stranger anxiety in infants and toddlers in a day care center setting.
Study 6. The relationship between development of secure attachment and mother's child rearing attitudes. 
Study 7. The relationship between the age of entrance into the day care centers and social development at the age of five. 
Study 8. The relationship between the age of entrance into the day care centers and intellectual development at the ages of 5 and 7. 
Conclusion: Bowlby's attachment theory and the empirical findings of his colleagues were verified to a certain degree by our research. His theoritical formula concerning attachment behavior and separation anxiety seems to be very useful for investigating the effects of day care centers and child rearing practices. 

KEY WORDS: attachment behavior, separation anxiety.


田中 敏隆

My Approach to Developmental Psychology

Toshitaka Tanaka

The realms of my approach to developmental psychology during the 44 years since my graduation (from university) can be categorized as follows. 
l. Fundamental study of Developmental Psychology 
This includes : ( i ) the study of reversal congnition in infants, ( ii ) the developmental study of figure-congnition, (iii) the developmental study of letter-congnition and (iv) the study of circumstantial factor on the development of congnition. The results of these studies have been accordingly reported to academic associations, followed by their contribution to academic journals. Then they have been published after about 10 years, which are in 1966, 1975 and 1991. 
2. Study of the link between theory and practice 
This study is based on the results of the fundamental study of development psychology and is concerned with the relation of development, education and instruction. I have contributed 109 articles in the educational journals. These articles have been systematized and published in 1986 and 1988. 
3. Study of the developmental process of a brother and a sister through longitudinal method 
My family comprises three generations, which has made it possible for me to capture the developmental process of two grandchildren continually from birth. The data are made up of photographs and observation (records). The purpose of the study is : ( i ) study of the setting of developmental standard and ( ii ) study of intellectual, moral and physical education scenes inside the home. 

Key Words : figure-congnition, letter-congnition, developmental process, logitudinal method.


児玉 衣子

A Study of F.W.A. Froebel's Mother-Play from the Viewpoint of Educational Methodology 
-To grow a child's dawning mind-

Kinuko Kodama

 Froebel's Mother-Play is the only book that he published to explain his ideas about young children's education. In another article, he wrote that he set not only his educational aim, objectives, methods, ways and means in this book but also the opportunities in the homelife or educating young child through his developmental phases. 
According to his words, this study begins to clear up the ways of young children's education in this book. In this study, the following two points are clear. 
l . This book is strucrured like Figure 5. 
2 . Froebel explained how to combine the educational aim and objectives with a child's development; 
First, Froebel set his educational aim. Then, to realize it, he described a child from three phases: (1) limbs and senses, (2) personal relationship to his mother and others as an expression of his self feeling, and (3) dawning mind. However, by using just these phases, he felt he could not truly capture a child's developmental growth. Thus, he considered how these phases appears in a child. Finally, he showed educational objectives, from a child's developmental appearance to its goal by using and trainning it. 
In this manner, Froebel showed how to combine educational aim, objectives, and a child's developmental phases. We can say that it is one of the answers to the modern educational theme of how best to combine these elements. 

Key Words : Structure, Relation between aim and a child's development.


- パスクァーリとアガッツィ通して -

上野 慶子

The Frdbel method in the "Programmi 1914" of Italy 
-through Pasquali and Agazzi-

Keiko Ueno

 In Italy, as in other countries, the Frdbel method was introduced in about the mid-nineteenth century. Since then it has had considerable influence on Italian early-childhood education. 
In this paper I will examine the influence the Frdbel method has had in Italy and how it came to be accepted by the Department of Education, in particular, I willexamine the first programs issued in 1914 <Teaching, programs and schedules for nursery-schools and kindergartens>. Specifically, I wil1 deal with how, through the ideas of Pasquali and his collaborator Agazzi, Frdbel's ideas gained acceptance in the following five areas "avoidance of the 3Rユs concretization of gifts and occupations" 
"liberal <0ccupations equal plays> and individual respect" "Garden" and "Maternity". 

Key Words. : the Frbbel system in Italy, the first programs issued in 1914, Pasquali, Agazzi.


原田 碩三・原田 昭子・坂下喜佐久・長谷川 勝一

Footwear and the Development of Preschool Children's Feet

Sekisou Harada・ Akiko Harada・ Kisaku Sakasita・ Syouiti Hasegawa

 As the development of feet in preschool children has not been very good, we undertook a study of 975 preschool children in Osaka city and Hyogo prefecture. We took imprints of feet at two kinds of schools: schools where zouri are worn and schools where shoes are worn. We estimated the shape of long inner arch, foot length and width, heel-width and the center of gravity be regression. These factors were closely related to age, in months, height, weight, foot length, ect. We analyzed these aspects of regression and measures of hallux valgus, foot girth/foot length, heel width/ foot width and heel-width/foot width. The results showed that only foot width and the center of gravity in the right foot were similar in the two different kinds of schools, and that all other aspects were better in schools where zouri were worn. 

Key Words : Long Inner Arch, Hallux Valgus, Foot Girth/Foot Length, Heel Width/Foot Width.



大伴 栄子

The Study of Cooking in Early Education 
-The objectives and the method from the constructivist view-

Eiko Ohtomo

In Some kindergartens and day care centers, teachers provide children with opportunities to cook, simply because children like to cook. These opportunities are unfortunately provided without clearly conceptualized objectives or educationally valid procedures. 
The writer proposed cooking activities as science education from the point of view of Piaget and Kamii's Theory, namely, constructivism. According to Piaget and Kamii, the goal of education is to promote autonomy in children. Tese researchers belived that science education could give children opportunities for thinking and acting autonomously. As the cook, children are motivated to act on objects and to think about them, actively. 
The writer proposed five objectives in both the socioemotional and intellectual realms. She also proposed methods of cooking which helped children to cook autonomously. The method were discribed in eight articles which included the use of a recipe, reducing the teacher's authority, and promoting interaction among children.

Key Words : cooking, science education, Piaget and Kamii's Theory, autonomy.