Original Articles
Saburo Sato
Trends and Issues of Pre-school Education and Care in the United States
Hiroko Sasaki

Hiroko Motoki

A Study on Preschool Children's Humorous Expressions for Coordinating Interpersonal Relations
Teruko Hattori
Rorschach responses of young children with LD
Ryutaro Kaneko
Theoretical Study of Early Childhood and Development from the view point of Open System and Tragling
Emiko Hannah Ishigaki
The 1990's Reality of the Dream Society
-Changes of Kibbutzim and Early Childhood Educare-


佐藤 三郎

Trends and Issues of Pre-school Education and Care in the United States

Saburo Sato

This articls in divided into two parts. In part one, I explain why and how I had became interested and involved in the education and care for early childhood even though my main field of research was on curriculum theories and practices at school level comparing Japan and U.S. 
I have an honor of translating several books written by J.S. Bruner including a famous look メthe Process of Education" and introducing his theories to Japanese teachers with the purpose of innovating Japanese education to keep up with the world-wide trends. It is widely known that new curricula at the school level and pre-school education and care were greatly influened by cognitive psychologists including Bruner. 
In part two, I try to follow the origin of Project Head Start, a kind of federal government social policy, pros and cons of its past practices and implications for a coming new century with additional information and my comments on various types of pre-school education and care program.


佐々木 宏子  元木 弘子

A Study on Preschool Children's Humorous Expressions for Coordinating Interpersonal Relations

Hiroko Sasaki   Hiroko Motoki

Over the past 10 years, W Yochien (a kindergarten in T prefecture) has asked both parents and teachers to collect interesting expressions of their children and pupils. For the past 10 years, W Yochien has published those expressions which were selected by the class teachers. They expected that teachers and parents would develop sensitivity for the children's psychology. 
During the last 10 years, We chose 150 humorous expressions which coordinate interpersonal relations out of 3,489 expressions by 1,359 children aged 4 and 5 years old who attended W Yochien.
We classified all humorous expressions into three categories according to the following motivations : (A) Offending toward Discipline, (B) Disagreement and (C) Spontaneous Humor. 
The most important results were as follows: 
l) 80.7% of humorous expressions were collected by mothers. 
2) 73.3% of humorous expressions were told to mothers. 
3) In all the 150 humorous expressions that coordinate interpersonal relations, 
Offending toward Discipline appeared 58.0%, Disagreement, 18.7% and Spontaneous Humor, 23.3%. 
4) The largest number (67.2%) of humorous expressions to mothers derived from Offending toward Discipline. 
5) Thc largest number (42.59%) of humorous expressions to people (fathers, teachers, grandmothers, friends 'and so on) other than mothers derived from Spontaneous Humor.

Key Words : Preschool children. Humorous expressions. Interpersonal relations.


服部 照子

Rorschach responses of young children with LD

Teruko Hattori

The purpose of this study is to reveal some features of cognitive abilities and emotional problems of LD young children, by comparing their responses in Rorschach test with those of normal young children.

The subjects were 22 LD young children (16 boys and 6 girls ; the average age 5 : 10) and 18 normal young children (7 boys and 11 girls ; the average age 6 : 6).

The results were as follows

1. Although LD young children had passive contacts with the external world, they appeared to have proper social adaptability and their social behaviors did not deviate from accepted standards (R, Rej, RT, R1T, R1TNc, R1Tcc, H%, A%, CR and DR showed the normal range of their values). 
However, their suppression of impulses and emotional complexes seemed to be superficial (M < ΣC, FM+m > Fc+c+C', VIII IX X/R% > 30%).

2. Basically their cognitive abilities were apt to display serious cognitive confusions (as compared to the high values of Low W, Low D, Wa, Wv, Da, Dv, and F%, the values of High W, High D, F+ %, _F+ % and R+ % were verylow). Moreover, their several signs (the high values of W-, DW, D-, DdD) suggested childish verbalizations and confublations.

3. Concerning experimental balances, they indicated extratensive types with emotional instability. 
They were very poor at emotional control and easily disturbed by emotional stimulus. 
The test indicated that LD young children showed impulsive agitations and explosive reactions easily and very often (M < _C, FM+m > Fc+c+C', VllloIXo X/R% > 30%, pathological cognitive disabilities).

Key Words : LD (learning disabilities). Young children with LD. Rorschach test.
   Cognitive disorder. Emotional disturbance.


金子 龍太郎

Theoretical Study of Early Childhood and Development from the view point of Open System and Tragling

Ryutaro Kaneko

This study theorizes development of early childhood with the two concepts of Open System and Tragling (clinging ; carrying) from the view point of organicism. 
Firstly, Open System indicates that the organism (human being) always interacts with the outer world, and forms a system with other. Consequently the infant's development goes well only when there is a structured infant-nurturer system. 
Secondly, Tragling shows the characteristics that an infant is brought up by a nurturer through carrying or clinging, and Tragling is an essential function of human beings as primates. In this study, Portmann's theory is criticized, because he did not see an infant as a competent existence and did not consider the infant-nurturer system. 
The applied study indicated significant effects of an enhanced environment in the residential nursery on the development of young children. Good surroundings to raise children soundly are conceptualized not only in institutions but in families with the two concepts of Open System and Tragling.

Key Words : Organicism, Open System, Tragling (clinging),
Development Security



石垣 恵美子

The 1990's Reality of the Dream Society 
-Changes of Kibbutzim and Early Childhood Educare-

Emiko Hannah Ishigaki

This paper consists 3 parts ; changes in Israeli society, changes in Kibbutz society and changes in Kibbutz childcare.
Since my first visit to Kibbutzim in 1974, I have visited Kibbutzim 7 times in 20 years and watched changes in Kibbutzim and childcare within them. The history of changes in Kibbutzim is extremely interesting ; in the half of a century from 1910 when a Kibbutz was founded to 1960s, the Common Sleeping System was in all its glory, and parents were sleeping in their own apartments while children were living and sleeping in children's houses. The 1970s, criticism and arguments arose. In the 1980s, some Kibbutzim adopted the Family Sleeping System. And, in the first half of 1990s, the Family Sleeping System was established in all Kibbutzim.
In my 7th visit to Israel for about one month from December 1993 to January 1994, I had opportunities to observe various changes in Israeli society itself, the changes in Kibbutzim which were affected by the society as well as the reality of Early Childhood Education and Care in Kibbutzim, which had undergone a violent change. I will explain and discuss these changes representing the latest statistical data together. 
Principal contents are as follows : 

I . Changes in Israeli society ; 
§ In dynamic trends of population 
§ In economic and educational policies of the government 
§ In national living and awareness 

II. Changes in Kibbutz society ; 
§ In dynamic trends of population 
§ In methods of Kibbutz management 
§ In Kibbutz living and awareness 

Ill. Changes in childcare system of Kibbutzim ; 
§ In sleeping system 
§ In methods of childcare management 
§ In the contents of childcare

Key Words : Kibbutz , Israeli childcare.