乳幼児教育学研究 第１5号 掲載論文要旨
JAPANESE JOURNAL FOR THE EDUCATION OF YOUNG CHILDREN
A study of anew
kindergarten teacher’s internal changes of “class-management challenges” and
child-care actions in a child-care environment
Astudy of anew kindergarten teacher’s internal changes of “class-management challenges” and child-care actions in a child-care environment
―An investigation of concrete solutions relevant to successful care for both the whole-class and the individual―
The purpose of this study is to find concrete solutions is relevant for both whole-class and individual care. This research was undertaken in response to a conflict experienced by a teacher which has been objectively verified.
The information in this report was obtained through interviews with a new kindergarten teacher in charge of four-year-olds. In addition to direct observationofher class, it became apparent that challenges arose in both individual and informal play group situations. The following four points are enumerated as concrete measures to overcome such conflicts :
１．Kindergarten teachers should observes from a position inwhich they can see the whole-class and recall individual play situations among children.
２．Akindergartenteacher should devise a method to help foster a relationship between children that enables children to develop and maintain play on their own.
３．When the children begin to develop play by themselves, the kindergarten teacher should leave the corner to participate in activities that require care. At this point, the teacher comes to realize the optimal supportive environment for positive child play for both the whole-class and the individual.
４．Akindergartenteacher repeats steps１to３for each new class-management challenge conflict.
Key words: new kindergarten teachers, class-management challenges, condition objectively, whole-class, individual care
“The relation between children’s apologies and levels of guilt development”
Miwa NAKAGAWA Akira YAMAZAKI
The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between levels of guilt development and apology. We generated hypothesis that the higher levels ofguilt development they were at, the more they predict apologies as behaviours of perpetraters, because apology is one of the indicators of moralilty. Subjects were ４-, ５-, and ６-years-old. About Apology task, we asked children to guess perpetraters’ behaviours, and calculated apology score based on their responses. About Guilt task,we asked them to answer perpetraters’ affections and behaviours. Subsequently, children were divided into ７ levels of guilt development. As a result, we found that apology scores were associated with age,which implied that they apologized increasingly with age. Additionally, we revealed that it was children located on higher levels rather than ones on lower levels of guilt development , who guessed apologies as perpetraters’ behaviours. Thus, it was indicated that apology developed as a base of guilt development.
Key words: apology, guilt, children, interpersonal conflicts
Multicultural Education with Japanese Young Children:
Micro-ethnographic Analysis of Interactive Method in Anti-Bias Approach
Young children show negative attitudes towards visible differences:gender, color, physical ability, and so on. These are called ‘pre-prejudice’ which may develop into real prejudice through reinforcement by prevailing societal biases（Darman-Sparks et al,１９８９）.The aims of this paper are to identify how young children show their pre-prejudice through their interactions with peers, to consider how the relations between a child who is left out by her classmates and the others change through anti-bias curriculum, and to consider the characteristics of teaching methods in dealing with children’s pre-prejudice. The data were collected from participant observation at a public day care center in the Kinki district, Japan from April to October２０５.The subjects are ２７three-year-old children, including a girl with a very small and delicate physique compared with the others, and two teachers.
The results of micro-ethnographic analysis of their interactions are as follows.
１）Three-year-old children show pre-prejudiced behaviors about difference of physique.
２）The young children’s pre-prejudiced behaviors would be changed by teachers’ interventions to desirable children’s relations through the curriculum.
３）The teacher tries to change group dynamics in the class by making small groups, through the ’interactive method’ in which each child’s desires and ideas are respected, even when in conflict each other. Although this method is the same as the anti-bias approach in theU.S., thepurpose of themethodisdifferent.The purpose of the former focuses on the group, while the latter focuses on each individual.
These results suggest that the interactive method in the anti-bias curriculum can lead three-year-old children to desirable relations. Teachers should consciously promote children’s self-assertion.
Key words: visible difference, pre-prejudice, interactive method, anti-bias curriculum, micro-ethnography
Spread process of ball play in the kindergarten education in Japan on the Meiji period
This research discusses and analyzes how ball play, apopular types of children’s play, has changed in the Japanese kindergarten education from the historical and practical data, especially focusing on the Meiji period, when the content of ball play in the kindergarten education changed remarkably.
One finding of this research is that ball play containing elements of hand skill had gradually shifted to ball play containing sport elements since around１９０７.
This change took place, reflecting the background ofthe educational policy and the social trend around １９０７. With the influence of the policy and the trend, ball gamesportswereintroducedinto the elementary school curriculums, and ball play containing sport elements was first adopted among elementary school children.
It is considered that children of public and kani（simple）kindergartens, many of which were attached to elementary schools, saw elementary school children playing ball play containing sport elements and began to imitate them, and it is, therefore, assumed children’s interest and concern had a impact on the spread of ball play containing sport elements in the kindergarten education.
Key words: Japanese kindergarten education, Ballplay, Elements of hand skill, Sport elements
Psychological change of mother who has child at transitional period from home to kindergarten
１．What kind of psychological and life changes does mother with child who enters kindergarten experience?
２．Do those changes influence the developing process as mother?
Focusing on these points, it is the purpose of this study toexamine thepsychological and life changes which
mothers with entering kindergartnersexperienced by qualitative method. The relationship between mother and
child changed through both the mother-child separation and the child’s changes of development. And mother
looked back on the process of her parenting to make newrelationwith her child. That is to say, the child’s
entering kindergarten means for mother that the balance of relationship between mother and child is upset and
their relationship is readjusted as necessary.
Key words: Entering kindergarten, Transitional period, Mather-Child Separation, Psychological change
The Formation of Physical Educationfor Preschool Children in Taiwan
The purpose of this study is to analyze why and how the methods of physical education for preschool
children were introduced to Taiwan and promoted in the １９７０’s which were originated by Eizou MIZUTANI,
Professor of Conan Women’s University in Japan. Firstly,thisstudy examines the government’s early childhood
education and physical education policies during those years to clarify the background of the birth of preschool
children’s physical education. Secondly, this study investigates the processes of introduction of the MIZUTANI style
physical education and analyzes the relationship between the Youth Membership of Christian Association
（YMCA）,the Presbyterian Church, and the Kuomintang Government. Thirdly, this study examines the promotion
of the preschool children’s physical education in Taiwanand theattitude of the Kuomintang Government towards
it. Finally, this study concludes that the MIZUTANI stylephysical education was imported to Taiwan in December,
１９７２by Taipei YMCA to develop its physical services. The promotion of the MIZUTANI style physical education by
YMCA Taiwan for years and the decoration to Eizou MIZUTANI with the Medal of Honor by the Taiwanese
government in １９７６ for his contribution to “Sports for All” helped spread the MIZUTANI style physical education
throughout Taiwan with the strong support from the government.
Key words: Taiwan, preschool children, physical education
玉置哲淳＊ 戸田有一＊＊ 瀧川光治＊＊＊
Typology of the kindergarten curriculum and its relation with teachers’
recognition of the articulation of transition from kindergarten to school
Tetsujun TAMAKI Yuichi TODA Koji TAKIGAWA
For these years, the articulation at the transition fromkindergarten to elementary school is considered to be important for adjustment of children. While several significant practices to improve the articulation have been reported, the each practice seems to be particular to eachcombination of kindergarten and school. To determine which practice is the most applicable to a certain combination of kindergarten and school, we should know the type of the combination and the nature of the transition. One of the factors tocharacterizethe transition should be the curriculum of kindergarten.
To distinguish the types of the kindergarten curriculums, and to know the articulation of each type and school curriculum, we asked３１０head-teachers of kindergartens in３prefectures. Factor analysis of１７items to depict the traits of the curriculum suggested３factors, which are self-fulfillment-centered, study-centered, and play-centered.
Among these three factors, self-fulfillment-centered factor significantly correlated with the teacher’s recognition of the articulation of transition. However, all three factors did not correlate significantly with the teachers’ recognition of the articulation of curriculums of kindergarten and school.
Implications of these results and the designoffurther researches were discussed.
Key words: articulation, transition, kindergarten, elementary school, curriculum
The Efforts for Improvement of the Early Childhood Education at Kindergarten in the Latter Part of the Meiji Period
―Focusing on the Introduction of Child Psychology at Matsumoto Kindergarten―
The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics of the educational studies conducted by the teachers of Matsumoto Kindergarten in the latter part of the Meiji period. Matsumoto Kindergarten introduced child psychology in １９０ sand startedtoresearch the kindergarten children. Based on these researches, the kindergarten teachers were dedicated to the studies of toys and fairy tales. The following three points are the characteristics of these studies. １）These studies showed the standard of choosing the educational materials which suited the development of children, and clarified that the educational value lay in promoting the natural development of children. ２）These studies covered the fundamental issue such as−why toys or fairy tales were necessary for the early childhood−.The teachers gathered the materials suitable for the early childhood education. ３）The social values were considered. The toys studycontributed to not only the improvement of the kindergarten education but also that of the home education.Astothe studyoffairy tales, the teachers intended to respond to the social situations by choosing the materials ofthe fairytales which reflected the spirit of the times.
Key words: Matsumoto Kindergarten, the latter part of the Meiji Period, child psychology, studies of the early
Last Update: 2007/4/22