乳幼児教育学研究 第30号 掲載論文要旨
JAPANESE JOURNAL FOR THE EDUCATION OF YOUNG CHILDREN
| Policy Trends of “Early Childhood Teachers’ Training” in Japan
and South Korea: Focusing on the Training System since 2000
| A Study on the Burden and Hardship Experienced by and the Support Needed
by Parents during an Atypically Developing Children’s Visit to Medical Facilities:
A Semi-Structured Interview to Develop Tools to Help Prepare Atypically Developing Children for Visiting Hospital
| How Mothers and Nursery Teachers Interact with Children in Virtual Situations:
Focusing on the Characteristics of Physical Contact with Unstable Children under 3 Years Old
| Hand-Related Communication Behavior in Two Pairs of Mothers and Preverbal Infants:
A Focus on the Mother’s Pointing Behavior and the Child’s Hand-Taking Gestures
|A Case Study of a Nursery Teacher Approaching Infants and Toddlers Using Her/His Own Back
Policy Trends of “Early Childhood Teachers’ Training” in Japan and South Korea:
Mimi CHOI Kiyomi AKITA
This study is a comparative analysis of policy trends regarding the training for early childhood teachers in Japan and Korea. The main purpose of the current study was to identify the similarities and differences in the policies of early childhood teachers’ training in Japan and Korea. In this study, we focused on the training system at the national and local government levels related to Japan-Korea teachers’ training and analyzed and examined the social background and current policies for teachers’ training. In both countries, the teachers’ training has been systematized and diversified to promote professional development among early childhood teachers at the national level; the formulation of training guidelines by the national government, the different content of training depending on teachers’ work experience and duties, financial support for teachers’ training. Otherwise, it was found that there were differences in terms of the details such as “work experience”, “training hours”, and “betterment of working conditions” depending on teachers’ duties and professionalism training contents in Japan-Korea. The most common barriers to participation in teachers’ training were scheduling conflicts and the shortage of substitute teachers in both Japan and Korea. Thus, it is important to develop strategies and policies to eliminate these barriers.
Key words: early childhood teachers’ training, in-service training, professional development, early childhood education and care policy, a comparative study of Japan and Korea
A Study on the Burden and Hardship Experienced by and the Support Needed by Parents
This study aims to understand the burden experienced by parents of children with atypical patterns of development at the visit for medical consultation, and to identify their needs for support. In September 2019, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six mothers of preschool children who visit a child development support center of City A. The interview data include many complaints caused by lack of communication, such as parents who perceive that they were forced to follow measures to prevent accidents taken by medical institutions, suggesting that lack of communication is linked to hesitation and avoidance at the medical consultations. The findings show that the burden experienced by parents at the visit for medical consultation will be reduced if parents understand the reasons for medical treatments, are convinced of the necessity of the treatments, learn of the effects, gain confidence in medical consultations, and can communicate effectively with the medical staff.
Key words: atypically developing children, preparation for visiting medical facilities, parents suppor
How Mothers and Nursery Teachers Interact with Children in Virtual Situations:
Haruka YAMAGUCHI Yoshiko SHIRAKAWA
The purpose of this study was to clarify how mothers and nursery teachers interact with children when they show signs of instability, and what kind of physical contact they use in this interaction. For the research method, we conducted a questionnaire survey to mothers attending nursery schools and children’s nursery schools in Tokyo and to teachers working at the same schools. The results showed that mothers, regardless of the age of their children, made physical contact with their children by “hugging or carrying” them when they showed signs of instability, and that they were conscious of their children’s feelings when interacting with them. On the other hand, when children showed instability, nursery teachers interacted in various and professional ways according to the child’s age, development, and the situation at the time, but tended to engage in less physical contact than mothers. These results indicate that mothers and teachers have different ways of interacting with children when they show instability under similar conditions, and that there are also differences in physical contact.
Key words: physical contact, mother-child relationship, nursery teacher, in fancy, virtual situation
Hand-Related Communication Behavior in Two Pairs of Mothers and Preverbal Infants:
We focused on the pointing behavior of parents (mothers) of infants and tested frequency and qualitative changes with development and the infants’ response to their mothers’ pointing behavior. The social interaction of two infants (S: girl, H: boy) with their mothers was observed longitudinally from early infancy (the “eye-pointing” period) to the period in which pointing behavior begins (the pointing behavior period). We found that mothers frequently engaged in pointing behavior with their infants even from early infancy, before they exhibited the behavior themselves. While the infants’ response to their mother’s pointing behavior was to look at their mother’s hand over half of the time during the eye-pointing period, they looked at the object being pointed to more often than their mother’s hand during the pointing behavior period. This indicated a significant change in the qualitative meaning of the mother’s pointing behavior with the infants’ development. Moreover, we observed the hand-taking gestures that have been reported only in 1-year old children in the pointing behavior period. This suggested that the experience of watching their mother’s hand may affect the development of children’s pointing behavior and hand-taking gestures.
Key words: preverbal vocal period, mother’s pointing behavior, hand-taking gesture
A Case Study of a Nursery Teacher Approaching Infants and Toddlers Using Her/His Own Back
Kazuko MIZUNO Fuminori NAKATSUBO
This study aims to clarify the necessity of a Japanese female nursery teacher’s approach to infants and toddlers using her own back. We analyzed 10 notebooks in which the first author, a female nursery teacher, recorded daily episodes over an 8-year period, from 2011 to 2018. From these, we extracted and reviewed 20 episodes in which she used her back to approach infants and toddlers.
Key words: nursery teacher, care and education for infants and toddlers, using teachers’ back