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The Japanese Journal of Care and Early Childhood Education vol.10 2001

CONTENTS
Original Articles

Makoto KOBARI ・・・・・・・・ The Relation between the Entrance Selection of National or Private Elementary Schools and Development of Young Children
―On the Realities and its Effects of Education for Entrance―
Harutomo UEDA
Michiko HARA
Fuminori NAKATUBO
・・・・・・・・ Social Context between Two Children in Integrated Care Classroom with Different Degrees of Disability
―Ethnographic Research―
Kaori YOSHIMURA
Akiko YOSHIOKA
Masayuki SHIBASAKI
・・・・・・・・ How Children Show their Subjectivity and Kindergarten-teachers Consist of Circumstance in Early Childhood Care and Education
―Concerning Structure of their Choices―
Natsumi SONODA
Takashi MUTO
・・・・・・・・ A Study of "Educational Activities Provided During Extra Curricular Hours" in Preschools: Quality of Care and Manner of Children
Shigeo MIYAKE ・・・・・・・・ The Developmental Process of Social Function of Language and Play at the Kindergarten
Reiko UZUHASHI ・・・・・・・・ A Study of Parents Involvement at a Community Nursery in the UK
Naoko KURIHARA ・・・・・・・・ An Analysis from the Point of View of Early Childhood Education and Care on A CROSS THE DEATH-Line of Toyohiko Kagawa:
Focus on the Children in a Slum
Akira MAEHASHI
Emiko ISHIGAKI
・・・・・・・・ Research on Health Management for Young Children
―Children's Body Temperature and its Daily Variational Change at A Day Care Center―


小学校受験の準備教育と幼児の発達

―その実態および影響について―

小針 誠

The Relation between the Entrance Selection of National or Private Elementary Schools and Development of Young Children
―On the Realities and its Effects of Education for Entrance―

Makoto KOBARI

 Recently, the mass media discussed the problem of the entrance selection of the nation management, private elementary school in the metropolitan area sensationally as "an examination hell". Although the education toward the elementary school entrance examination as an early education is said to give infants bad harm, we don't know whether such discussion is true or false.
 The purpose of this research is the actual condition of the elementary school entrance examination seen from 604 mothers' eyes. And, it tries to clear the matter whether that exerts what kind of influence on the infant. The following knowledge became clear as a result of the questionnaire investigation.
 Firstly, as a child's age rises more, an infant becomes busier toward the entrance examination preparation.
 Secondly, children receive examination education, and many mothers evaluate their children change "affirmative". Though the other side is a few children, there are children that the pressure of the education particularly did "the change which wasn't desirable" for mother's attitude.
 Thirdly, though the mother of about half feels child care stress, it is dissolved by getting husband's child care cooperation.

Key Words:
early education, education for entrance selection, national or private elementary schools

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統合教育場面における障害児のエスノグラフィー

―障害の程度の異なる2人の幼児に着目して―

上田敏丈 原三智子 中坪史典

Social Context between Two Children in Integrated Care Classroom with Different Degrees of Disability
―Ethnographic Research―

Harutomo UEDA
Michiko HARA
Fuminori NAKATUBO

 The number of nursery schools which practice integrated care based on normalization increased during recent years. The purpose of this study is to examine the contexts of "handicapped" derived from the different degree of disability of two children in integrated classrooms. An ethnographic study examined two students at a nursery school in Hiroshima Prefecture. Naruo and Makoto were the subjects of this research. Naruo is a 5 year-old boy with severe development delay. Makoto is 5 year-old and considered a "difficult child."
 An assistant teacher took care of Naruo. Contrary to expectations, the interaction between Naruo and his classmates decreased. His classmates either neglected or treated Naruo as a pet. Regardless of Naruo's feelings, he was required to take part in the "circle time."
 It was difficult for Makoto to make friends in his class. Makoto was unable to urinate in the toilet by himself. He could not perform as well as his classmates in physical activities. The teacher attempted to help him to get along with his classmates. Makoto, did not like teacher's intervention. He considered the teacher's intervention as barrier to make friends. "Circle time" might be the most enjoyable time for him since he shared the same space with his classmates.
 We can consider that the different context of "handicapped" are related to differences in the degree of the disability. Naruo's handicap is visible and Makoto's is not.

Key Words:
integrated care, "handicapped", visuality, handicapped children, ethnography

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保育における子どもの主体性と保育者の環境構成

―選択の構造をめぐって―

吉村香 吉岡晶子 柴崎正行

How Children Show their Subjectivity and Kindergarten-teachers Consist of Circumstance in Early Childhood Care and Education
―Concerning Structure of their Choices―

Kaori YOSHIMURA
Akiko YOSHIOKA
Masayuki SHIBASAKI

 The purpose of study is to examine how children show their identity in play, and how caregiver consist of circumstance through three cases, in their kindergarten. The three cases show as follows,

  1. Caregiver entrusts the choice of her possibility to circumstance that she consists.
  2. Both children and caregiver put their choice of possibility into practice.
  3. Caregiver is going to trust children with choice of their doings.
  4. The resource of children's choice of possibility exist in both inside and outside kindergarten.

 As a result, it is important that caregiver uses her head applying spatitotemporal axis consisting circumstance and her practice.

Key words:
identity, ones choice of possibility, ones choice of doings, consist of circumstance

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幼稚園「預かり保育」に関する研究:

保育の質と子どもの様子

園田菜摘 無藤隆

A Study of "Educational Activities Provided During Extra Curricular Hours" in Preschools: Quality of Care and Manner of Children

Natsumi SONODA
Takashi MUTO

 There are educational activities provided during extra curricular hours in preschool. This study examined the quality of care environments and the manner of children in these activities. Researchers observed these activities in 5 preschools to assess the quality of care environments by using "Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale". Questionnaires were also conducted to rate the manner of children in these activities by asking care-givers and parents who were involved in these activities. The results showed that the quality of care environments, such as "space and equipment", "individual day-activities routine", "activity" and "interaction" were all scored higher levels. In addition, the manner of children were considered positive by both care-givers and their parents. For example, they regarded children as enjoying these activities, playing cheerfully, making new friends, and being effected on their development. These findings suggest that educational activities provided during extra curricular hours may influence positively to children's development and that more details about the significance of these activities should be examined in developmental view.

Key Words:
educational activities during extra curricular hours, care environments, children's manner, preschools

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幼稚園における言語の社会的機能と遊びの発達過程

三宅茂夫

The Developmental Process of Social Function of Language and Play at the Kindergarten

Shigeo MIYAKE

 The purpose of this study is to clarify the development process of the social function of language and the progress of play in early childhood. The subjects of this study were (4-year-old class) 24 children and 18(5-year-old class) children. The investigation was held twice in April / May 2000, and April / May 2001 by using the way of time-sampling techniques (how to take the sampling 1/0). The categories Is used to the "social function of language" by Halliday(1973), and "the social participation among pre-school children" by Parten(1932). As a result of this study, 4 points were clarified as follows.

  1. In general, there are some progresses in all categories except for language of "the discovery function " and play of "the observation function".
  2. Among children in 4-year-old class, there were many obvious progresses of language function and sociality in their play.
  3. Since there were no obvious changes among children in 5-year-old class, it is regard as their progress become slow and stable. On the other hand, it is clarified obviously that the low-level categories in their development decreases and the high-level categories in their development increases.
  4. On the each class, development process in the each category make a result that younger children in the lowest level changes remarkable. Considering circumstance mentioned above, in the point of language function and the progress of participating social development in play, there are differences between the classes. It has been clarified that the development of the low level is more speedily, and the development of the high level is more slowly.

Key words:
early childhood, play, verbal communication, social functions of language, social participation among pre-school children, time- sampling techniques

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UKのあるコミュニティ・ナーサリーに見る親のインヴォルヴメント

埋橋玲子

A Study of Parents Involvement at a Community Nursery in the UK

Reiko UZUHASHI

 Involving parents in their children's education is a big agenda in many countries. Governments are beginning to recognise that high standards of achievement depend on parental support to a certain extent. In the UK, Labour government made recommendations that there should be a fully integrated approach to early years education and care across the public, private and voluntary sector. Supporting parents and training parents were identified as major tasks for early childhood educators in all settings. Pen Green centre, a community nursery located in a disadvantaged town named Corby in middle England, has a good reputation as a provider of well organized early years education service in the partnership with parents and community. This paper focuses on practice at Pen Green Center and identifies the partnership between early years practitioners and parents to take some implication for family support for bringing up children in Japan.

Key Words:
United Kingdom, Pen Green centre, community nursery, parents involvement, early years education

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賀川豊彦の『死線を越えて』の保育学的研究

―スラムの子どもを中心に―

栗原直子

An Analysis from the Point of View of Early Childhood Education and Care on A CROSS THE DEATH-Line of Toyohiko Kagawa:
Focus on the Children in a Slum

Naoko KURIHARA

 A CROSS THE DEATH-Line has the support of the mass of the people in a lot of subject, and it is the best seller in a Taisyou period. [1920' s] This novel is an autobiographical novel, a part of a novel is different, it's a fictitious name is used, but it's a literary work which is based on historical facts. Though Toyohiko Kagawa is placed with a standpoint a social movement Christianity evangelist, there are a small number of studies from early childhood education and care.
 Kagawa devoted himself to the poor people in a slum. Because he lived with the people in a slum, he recognized various problems for poor people, he explained a bad environment gives children the focus of infant. He opened a Sunday School and played with children.
 He also performed a funeral service for a dead baby and saved a baby, whose name was Oishi, from a criminal who adopted a baby.
 He was not only absorbing information from books about nature but also being in reading and meditation. He took a rest of spirit by taking a walk in a Mount Rokkou, Mount Maya.
 He supported women who were used violence by her husband in a slum and supported women who became prostitute for economical reason because of having no choice. In his childhood, he felt a woman a longing, a noble, and a respect.
 His focus on the children in a slum developed a day-care center, kindergarten in the later activity of early childhood education.

Key words:
early childhood education and care, children in a slum, woman, nature, Christianity

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幼児期の健康管理

―保育園児の園内生活における体温の変動―

前橋明 石垣恵美子

Research on Health Management for Young Children
―Children's Body Temperature and its Daily Variational Change at A Day Care Center―

Akira MAEHASHI
Emiko ISHIGAKI

 The relation of body temperature to daily nursery life and movement was examined in a study on 181 children at a day care center, and the importance of body temperature to the life and the health management of the children was discussed.

  1. The children were divided into three groups.
    Group A consisted of 28 children (15.5%) with a body temperature over 37.0 degrees at 9:OO a.m., and whose average temperature was 37.19 degrees. Group B consisted of 127 children (70.1%), whose body temperature ranged from 36.0 degrees to 37.0 degrees, and whose average temperature was 36.48. Group C consisted of 26children (14.4%) who body temperature was under 36.0 degrees, and whose average temperature was 35.58 degrees.
  2. In the case of the children in Group B and Group C, whose temperature was under 37.0 degrees when they arrived at day care center, their temperature rose after movement and play in the morning. On the other hand, the children in Group A, whose temperature was over 37.0 degrees, decreased in temperature in spite of walking 3209 steps in the morning, which was about 200 to 400 steps more than Groups B or C per person on average.

 In conclusion, physical exercise and play are considered to contribute to the activation of the autonomic nerve, which administers a control over child's body temperature.

Key Words:
children's body temperature, physical exercise, day care center, nursery life, health management

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JSEYC: 日本乳幼児教育学会
Last Update: 2002/06/07