|・・・・・・・・||The Relationship among Parents' Orientedness in Their Way of Life and Socialzing Behaviors of Children:
Focus on the Individual and Social Orientednesses
|Motoko OTO||・・・・・・・・||How Educational Reforms Have Influenced Kindergarten Progams in the U.S.:
From Reading Readiness Theory to Emergent Literacy
|Michiko SAKUMA||・・・・・・・・||The Development of Children's Understanding of Other's Perspective toward Themselves|
|Junko MATSUI NODA
|・・・・・・・・||Helping a Preschool Educator Adapt to a Preschooler via a Developmental Consultation:
The Case of a 3-year-old Boy with Disruptive Behavior
|・・・・・・・・||A Basic Study on Curriculum Development Enabling the Smooth Transition from Preschools to 1st Grades:
A Case Study of American Kindergartens Bridging the Gap between Preschools and 1st Grades in Japan
|・・・・・・・・||Five-years-old Children's Ability to Recognize Life through Feeding Living Things|
|・・・・・・・・||Preschoolers' Social Skills and Problem Behaviors at School and Home|
|Makoto SHIBAYAMA||・・・・・・・・||A Study on Cultural Adjustment Processes in Childhood:
A Relational Analysis of a Chinese Five-year-old Boy Participating in a Japanese Day-care Center
|Koji TAKIGAWA||・・・・・・・・||Hori Shichizo s Educatronal Theory for "Kansatu (Observatron) " on Historical Research into Nature and Science Education for Early Childhood Education in Modern Japan|
湯澤美紀 倉盛美穂子 入江慶太 山崎晃
The Relationship Among Parents' Orientedness in Their Way of Life and Socialzing Behaviors of Children:
This study examined the relationship between the social orientation of parents and the aggressive and prosocial behavior of their children. One hundred and fifty-eight parents rated themselves on their social and individual orientation (Ito, 1993a) and also wrote what they would say to their children in hypothetical situations where children had social problems with their peers. The children were evaluated in terms of their aggressive and prosocial behavior by teachers. It was found that the children of parents who were more socially oriented were less aggressive than those of parents who were more individually oriented. Furthermore, in a hypothetical conflict situations (for example, a peer broke the block castle of a child and the child behaved aggressively to the peer), socially oriented parents reported that they would tell their children to apologize to the child and have the children reconcile, whereas individually oriented parents would more frequently advise their children to assist their own views.
How Educational Reforms have Influenced Kindergarten Progams in the U.S.:
The U.S. has focused on educational reforms of public schools.
The Development of Children's Understanding of Other's Perspective toward Themselves
The present study examined the development of children's understanding of other's perspective toward themselves. Thirty-two 5-five years orders, 37 second graders and 35 fourth graders ware interviewed about how they thought that each of several significant others (e.g., mother, peer, and teacher) perceived and evaluated themselves. Children's answers were classified according to the Sakuma, Muto, Endo (2000)'s category Scheme. The results indicated that 1) the self-descriptions from mother's perspective were most infrequency at all ages. 2) Preschoolers gave some self-descriptions from mother's and teacher's perspectives in terms of general evaluative terms, whereas school age children tended to describe the self from peer's perspective in terms of diligent one. The difference of the perspectives by others in self-descriptions became more clarified with age. It became also more reflecting unique qualities of each social relation.
Helping a Preschool Educator Adapt to a Preschooler via a Developmental Consultation:
Junko MATSUI NODA
Increasing numbers of preschool teachers experience difficulty in dealing with disruptive children. In this case study, we had continual discussions with a preschool (yochien) teacher who took charge of a three-year-old disruptive boy, and observed her teaching for nine months. Initially, the teacher was severely bothered by the boy's frequent disruptive behavior. Gradually, as she increased her episodes of one-on-one play with him, and shared information about him with other teachers. Eventually, his disruptive behavior became less serious and competent behaviors increased in frequency. During this course of change, the teacher was repeatedly confronted with discrepancies between her teaching plans and the boy's reactions to them. These discrepancies, however, promoted her under standing of the boy and improved her practice. Therefore, we believe, developmental psychologists should encourage educators to become aware of such discrepancies and to recognize that such discrepancies can be used in finding solutions to their problems.
Five-years-old Children's Ability to Recognize Life through Feeding Living Things
In this study, the ability of children to recognize life was examined by asking them to feed earthworms, tadpoles or goldfish to tortoises. Fifty-seven five-year-old children from three kindergartens were studied. Five-year-olds were selected because this is said to be the best age for 'waking up' the ability of children to discriminate between living and non-living things. This study revealed that feeding tortoises is not significantly related to a child's ability to recognize life. However, detailed analysis of the sets of reasons behind the choices children made, showed that kindergartners who would feed earthworms to tortoises would not necessarily feed them tadpoles or goldfish.
Preschoolers' Social Skills and Problem Behaviors at School and Home
This study explored the relationship between preschoolers' social behavior at school and at home based on information provided by teachers and mothers on children's social skills and behavior problems. A factor analysis of the data from 76 children extracted three factors for social skills at school: self-control, cooperative skills and assertive skills. Two factors were extracted for school behavior problems; externalizing problem behavior and internalizing problem behavior. A factor analyses of the data from 73 children revealed three factors for social skills at home: assertive skills, cooperative skills, and self-control skills and two factors underlying behavior problems at home, externalizing problem behavior and externalizing problem behavior. The results of a correlation analyses show that assertive skills at school are positively related to assertive skills at home and that cooperative skills at school are positively related to self-control skills at home. Also, externalizing problem behaviors at school was positively related to externalizing it at home. These findings point to the significance of school-home partnerships in helping children acquire appropriate social behaviors.
A Study on Cultural Adjustment Processes in Childhood:
This paper presents a relational analysis of the participation of a five-year-old Chinese boy in a day care center. The viewpoint of interpreting children's development in a total network of caretakers, peers, tools, events and so forth was used as it was proposed by Kujiraoka in 1999. In this study, ethnographic data were obtained from participant observations and interviews conducted from October 1993 to April 1994 in Tokyo.
Hori Shichizo s Educatronal Theory for "Kansatu (Observatron) " on Historical Research
This paper is a study of 'nature and science education' in Japanese early childhood education from 1924 to 1945 with particular reference to Hori Shichizo's educational theory of observation.
Last Update: 2003/02/14