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乳幼児教育学研究 第12号 掲載論文要旨

THE JAPANESE JOURNAL FOR THE EDUCATION OF YOUNG CHILDREN

No.12 2003

 

CONTENTS
Articles

Kiyomi KURAMOCHI

Hisako SHIBASAKA

・・・・・・・・ Change of the image of preshcooler about playing with peer

Chie TANAKA

Haruo SAKUMA

・・・・・・・・ A study on the Development of Children’s Body Image in relation to Draw-A-Man Method
Michiko IWASAKI ・・・・・・・・ Nine Discoveries about Child Abusean Analysis of Newspaper Articles
Tomoe TANAKA ・・・・・・・・ Establishment of the Certificate examination System of the kindergarten teachers in the Pre-War Japan
Tadashi ADACHI ・・・・・・・・ Appearance of Kicking Motion in the standing position and Development of Balance Ability on One Foot in Early Childhood

Mariko NAGAHIRO

Yasuhiko KATO

Yoko MIYAGAWA

・・・・・・・・

Play and Intellectual Development in Early Education:

The Developmental Stages of “Tic Tac Toe”

Miki Yuzawa ・・・・・・・・ Qualitative changes in preschooleis relationship with friends: In the case of two 5-years-old-boys
Hideko MAKI  ・・・・・・・・

Children’s Expressional Style in Creative Expression Activities Theoretical Construction through educational practice in The Field of Early Childhood Education

Haruko FUKUI ・・・・・・・・ Advisable Nursery Books Which Support Children’s Origami Play
Junko HAMAGUCHI ・・・・・・・・

Sodachi(Growth;Growing Up) Vs. Hattatsu(Development)’: Differentiation in the Terminology Used by Practitioners of Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan .

Kaori YOSHIMURA

Mihoko TANAKA

・・・・・・・・

The care-giver’s understanding of children as speciality:

That is the case study of Narrative by a care-giver

 

Yangyang YOO ・・・・・・・・

Children’s Omoiyari, ‘Empathic Consideration’

Through the comparison between Japanese and Chinese children of four and five―

 



仲間遊びに対するある園児のイメージの変容

 倉持清美 柴坂寿子

Change of the image of preshcooler about playing with peer

 Kiyomi KURAMOCHI ,   Hisako SHIBASAKA

  The puepose of this study is to examine the change in the image of peer play of a girl who didn’t play with peer enough to enjoy herself in preschool. Analysis of peer play episodes which were videotaped reveled the difference of her image between in the first half of the 2-year education and in the second half. In the first half, she had the image of playing with peerand didn’t play enough to enjoy herself. In the second half, she had the image of playing to enjoy herselfand play with peer enough to enjoy herself. Close child who enjoy playing influenced the change of her image. It was considered that the peer in preschool had influenced on the change of her image.

 Key Words: image of playing with peer, preschool, playing to enjoy, peer relation

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人物描画法における幼児期のBody Imageの特性について

 田中千恵 佐久間春夫

A study on the Development of children’s Body Image in relation to Draw-A-Man Method

 Chie TANAKA ,    Haruo SAKUMA

 The purpose of the research was to examine the young children’s body image by means of the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test (Draw-A-Man Test: DAM). The participants were 123 children (62 boys and 61 girls) whose ages were 4 to 5 years in preschool. Using the DAM, whish is focused on the 15 parts of the human figure drawings, we analyzed the participants to find age and sex differences.

Consequently, the age and sex differences were revealed analyzing the number of body parts which were drawn by the participants. On the whole, the difference between the age groups was revealed concluding from the fact that the recognition rate of the body parts of the 5-year-olds was higher than the 4-year-olds. Among 4-year-olds, on great sex difference was revealed. On the body part and sex differences, among 5-year-olds, girls have a higher recognition rate than boys. Analyzing the results, the 5-year-old-girls have the highest recognition rate of body parts, and have the most clear recognition of the body image.

In the research, the possibility of utilizing the analyses in nursing was indicate: when the teacher elevates the children’s recognition of the body parts or awareness of the body image, or he / she helps the children draw human figures, the teacher should encourage the girls to realize the ear parts, and the boys to realize the clothes’ parts.

 Key words: Body image, children, development, sexes, Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test(Draw-A-Man Test)

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子ども虐待に関する9つの発見―新聞記事の内容分析―

 岩崎美智子

 Nine Discoveries about Child Abusean Analysis of Newspaper Articles

 Michiko IWASAKI

 The purpose of this research is to obtain an understanding of the overall condition of child abuse in Japan , and to apply this understanding to consideration of policies for the prevention of child abuse by the Child Welfare Administration. To accomplish this, I first obtained an understanding of the conditions of child abuse over a period of one year from statistics of the National Police Agency. I then analyzed 78 cases of child abuse that were published in newspaper articles. The results of this analysis showed that the largest number of child abuse cases occur in the summer, and the second largest number in the winter. Abuse is concentrated in a 5-hour period at night. In not all cases is the aggressor alone, and some cases involve multiple aggressors. The majority of aggressors are persons in younger age groups, who have dropped out from professional life and are leading unstable live. The most common reasons given for abuse were that the child “would not stop crying,” “would not listen,” or “had a bad attitude.” Child guidance centers were aware of 20% of the total cases. It is believed that the causes of the majority of child abuse must be found in the adult aggressors, and that investigative research and statistics are needed to enable an analysis of the social and economic factors involved. Moreover, further issues are a review of personnel organization at child guidance centers and a reexamination of regional networks, in order to respond to child abuse at an early stage.

 Key Words: Child abuse, Police statistics, Newspaper articles, Prevention of child abuse

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戦前日本における幼稚園保姆検定制度の確立

 田中友恵

 Establishment of the Certificate examination System of the  kindergarten teachers in the Pre-War Japan

 Tomoe TANAKA

 The Purpose of this study is to clarity the establishment process of a certificate examination system of the kindergarten teachers in prewar Japan . In the developmental stage of the kindergarten, many unqualified persons were working in the kindergarten, and there were few kindergarten teacher training schools and acquisition of a qualified person was an important subject.

 The certificate examination system was like the teacher training school with the route, which produces a large number of qualified persons. That is, in order to understand the character of kindergarten teacher training of prewar days, certificate examination system of the kindergarten teachers needs to be considered.

 In this paper, I gave an outline of a certificate examination system. And show the role, which played in the establishment as a kindergarten teacher’s professionalism.

 Key Words: certificate examination system, kindergarten teacher training, kindergarten teacher

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幼児の立位における蹴動作の発現と片足身体支持能力の発達

 足立正

 Appearance of Kicking in the Standing Position and Development of Balance on One Foot in Early Childhood.

Tadashi ADACHI

 The purpose of this study was to investigate the appearance of kicking motion in the standing position and development of balance on one foot in relation to running or hurried walking and jumping motions and the characteristics of each motion’s variation with ages in early childhood. Thirty-one children aged thirteen to twenty-nine months old were filmed by the use of a high-speed video camera while they were kicking, running or hurried walking and jumping. Then the supporting time on one foot and the duration of a flight in each motion were analyzed. The results were summarized as follows:

(1)    Over twenty-four months old children’s group, age of months, height, weight, kicking time on one foot, supporting time in running or hurried walking and jumping time were significantly superior.

(2)    The significant correlation coefficients with age of the months were height (r = 0.828, p<0.01), weight (r = 0.608, p<0.01), kicking time on one foot (r = 0.380, p<0.05), supporting time in running or hurried walking (r = 0.612, p<0.01), and jumping time (r = 0.755, p<0.01).

(3)    The coefficient of variation of kicking time on one foot was larger then the others. It suggested that the individual variation of kicking motion was larger than the other motions in their development.

(4)    These result led to the conclusions that the balance on one foot would influence on the appearance on kicking motion stronger than the muscular strength of legs, and children could kick a ball at the period of first half of one year old when their walk is stabilized.

 Key words: kick, appearance, balance on one foot, hurried walk, children

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幼児教育における遊びと知的発達

―ボードゲーム『三目並べ』を通して―

長廣真理子 加藤泰彦 宮川洋子

Play and Intellectual Development in Early Education: The Developmental Stages of “Tic Tac Toe”

 Mariko NAGAHIRO,  Yasuhiko KATO,  Yoko MIYAGAWA

  Eighty Japanese 3-, 4-, 5-, 6- and 7 years-olds each played Tic Toc Toe with the experimenter to examine whether “play” like a Tic Toc Toe has any intellectual components, and also to find out the developmental levels of Tic Toc Toe develop in a way similar to the American children studied by De Vries (1990).

 Intellectual components such as numerical reasoning, spatial reasoning, and temporal reasoning were often observed in the children’s play of Tic Toc Toe, and three broad levels, i.e. Making straight lines, Blocking, and Coordination of offensive and defensive strategies were found almost the same as American children, too. It was concluded that Tic Toc Toe is worth playing for children since it includes lots of intellectual components.

 Key Words: play, intellectual development, developmental stage, board game

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幼児期における親友関係の質的変容

―年長児クラスにおける2名の男児に着目して―

湯澤美紀

Qualitative changes in preschooleis relationship with friends: In the case of two 5-years-old-boys.

Miki YUZAWA

 Purposes of this study were to investigate how preschoolers change their relationships with the best friends over the long period, and how changes in relationships are affected by the preschoolers’ cognitive development and dynamics of the class. Two 5-year-old boys were observed during free play and meeting of the class once a week from April in 2001 to March in 2002. Qualitative changes in the relationship of the boys were interpreted in relation to the cognitive development of the boys and their relationships with other boys in the class. It was found that the two boys were developing mutual relationship although the relationship was constrained by egocentric thought. In addition, the boys were eager to play with a popular child in the class, which complicated their relationship. The class teacher provided the boys with opportunities to interact with each other and express themselves, which seemed to support the development of the boysrelationship and social skills.

Key Words: Preschoolers, friendship, social interactions, cognitive development

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幼児の表現活動に見られる「表現スタイル」

−現場(フィールド)からの理論構成の試み−

 槇英子

Children’s Expressional Style in Creative Expression Activities

Theoretical Construction through educational practice in The Field of Early Childhood Education

 Hideko MAKI

 The purpose of this study is to propose a method of theoretical construction through educational practices in the field of early childhood education by action research. Three types of young children’s creative expressive object activities (object dependent type, sensory dependent type, and situational dependent type) are found and the validity of this “expressional style” theory is examined. Through arranging methods of diverse qualitative and quantitative data collection and processing, possibility of field study in kindergarten is discussed.

 Key Words: Creative expression and activity, Expressional style, Action research, theoretical construction, Early childhood education

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幼児の折り紙遊びを支援する保育図書の望ましい在り方

福井晴子

Advisable Nursery Books Which Support Children’s Origami Play

Haruko FUKUI

Nursery books on Origami play support young children not only directly but also indirectly thorough their parents, nurse or teacher. Various nursery books in this field written by various authors with different positions have been reviewed in order to identify the inherent problems. Some problems discovered thorough the investigation are as follows.

1.The meaning and indication of the important word “Origami” are used ambigously. So it causes readers to be confused. This shows authors don’t have a difinition of Origami. 

2.The indications are not complete such as the grouping of traditional items or original ones, the degrees of difficulty, as well as the forms and quality of paper. The readers desire them.

3.Some illustrations and explanations are not suitable for little children to be understood. This may be due to unsatisfactory comprehension about the level of mental development of the childhood by the authors.

 Through the investigation, we can imagine how nursery books should be revised to support handing down these traditional form of play. As for the contents of the books, the efforts to suggest verious extensions of Origami play can be seen and accepted. Clear and definite information and method designed to grasp Origami play as traditional children’s cultur are also desired continuously.

Key Words: origami playing, nursery books, hand down, investigation of books

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保育者における「育ち」・「発達」概念の使用状況

およびイメージの比較とその保育学的意味

浜口順子

Sodachi(Growth;Growing Up) Vs. Hattatsu(Development)’:

Differentiation in the Terminology Used by Practitioners of Early Childhood Care and Education in Japan .

Junko HAMAGUCHI

The termsodachi(growth;growing up)is used more and more frequently than before, among practitioners and researchers of recent early childhood care and education in Japan. A hypothesis was thought that this phenomenon indicated how the usage and the meaning of the term hattatsu(development), which tended to be used with psychological, conventional connotation, had become changed in the relation with the wordsodachiin the practical field of early childhood care and education. According to the results from a questionnaire answered by 421 peactitioners in kindergartens and nursery schools, there is a clear difference on how the two words are used and in-terpreted. The termhattatsuis felt to be used more frequently than sodachias a whole, but each word is estimated importantfrom different points of view. The image ofhattatsubeing related withphysical growth, ability, developmental stages, scientismand, educational anxiety,the image of sodachiwith environment, inner(invisible) word, mutualityanddaily practice. The term sodachican be the clue to clarify developmental perspective that is needed for practitioners of early childhood care and education in Japan.

 Key Words: Sodachi(growth; growing up), hattatsu(development), terminology, practitioners of early childhood care and education, developmental perspective

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保育者の専門性としての幼児理解 

−ある保育者の語りの事例から−

吉村香 田中三保子

The care-giver’s understanding of children as speciality: 

That is the case study of Narrative by a care-giver

Kaori YOSHIMURA,   Mihoko TANAKA

This study has observed the practices of a caregiver in a kindergarten and discussed with the caregiver continuously, and through the narrative of the caregiver, analyzed how she understands children. The results are as follows;

1.      Understandings in practices by the care-giver, if she continues the understandings a long term, are contextualized by her sense of problems.

2.      Her sense of problems has functions of fusion and contextualize between the understandings in practices and its in meaningful reflections.

3.      How to understand children by a care-giver has special features in its totality and its continuity.

That is as the characteristic of practices that involve children’s life non- limitary and everyday.

We consider that understandings children by a care-giver is one of the specialties.

Key Words:Specialty, Underatandings of children, Context, Sense of Problems, Narrative

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幼児の「思いやり」意識に関する研究

―日本と中国の4歳児、5歳児の比較を通して―

劉洋洋

Children’s Omoiyari, ‘Empathic Consideration’

Through the comparison between Japanese and Chinese children of four and five

Yangyang YOO

To examine children’s Omoiyari, empathic consideration, the author interviewed sixty Japanese children age four and five and five and sixty Chinese children of the same age, using picture-story cards of six Omoiyari Situations. Children were first asked whether they would act with empathic consideration or not, and then the reasoning for the answer. Both Japanese children and Chinese children showed empathic consideration in the six Situations except Situation 5., the empathic consideration to the farmer who grew rice for children. Both Japanese children and Chinese children showed empathic consideration when they understood the situation correctly. Children’s empathic consideration was closely related to the children’s needs or wishes in each Situation. The stronger their wishes were, the less frequently they showed empathic consideration. Some children, however, could solve problems between their own needs and the other people’s needs, and showed empathic consideration by the way of sharing, waiting, looking for alternatives, forgiving, negotiating and so on. The Japanese children frequently used reasoning based on considering the other person’s feelings such as ‘because I feel sorry with the African child’, compared to the Chinese children. Chinese children often mentioned the reasoning based on indoctrination by adults. Cultural differences were reflected on children’s empathic consideration in both countries.

Key Words: empathic consideration, the reasoning for the answer, the comparison between Chinese children and Japanese children

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JSEYC: 日本乳幼児教育学会
Last Update: 2005/9/9