乳幼児教育学研究 第１４号 掲載論文要旨
JAPANESE JOURNAL FOR THE EDUCATION OF YOUNG CHILDREN
|Yoshitaka ITO||・・・・・||Reform of Nursery School Management and Managerial Competence of Nursery School Manager|
|・・・・・||Evaluating a needs-based course for off-the-job training of leaders who help with raising children|
on Natural Environment and “Child Care Close to Nature ”in the
―Based on the Nationwide Investigation ofActual Conditions Result―
|・・・・・||Effectiveness of the itinerant consultations for teachers in charge of special-needs children―The case studies of consultations with a manual for teachers―|
|Osamu NISHIYAMA||・・・・・||Development of childcare persons’efficacy scale to develop the abilities which young children keep good relationships with others|
|・・・・・||Research regarding the appropriateness of the living conditions of young children andchildcare program in the Seiwa kindergarten|
|Sayoko KOBAYASHI||・・・・・||The Perception Gap Concerning Curriculumamong Teachers and Parents of Day CareCenter, Kindergarten and Elementary School Children|
渡部昌史 加賀 勝
The developmental changes and laterality of walking motion in infant
Masashi WATANABE Masaru KAGA
The purpose of this study was to clarify the developmental changes and laterality of walking motion in infant. The subjects were118 infants aged from 2 to 6years. We measured relevant walking parameters, i.e., step length, step width, step pace, step length/height, step width/height, and correlated the results with age. The results were summarized as follows.
parameters correlated significantly with age, i.e., step length of
Effect Which Practical Use of Outline Drawing Paper Will Give to
Children’s Pictures Expression
Kumiko ODA Toshiyuki TAKAHASHI
All childcare persons prepare the environment for plastic play, and are wishing that children ’s express richly. However, there are some children who cannot draw independently actually happily. The purpose of this article is proposing the concrete means which stimulate activation of plastic activities for the infant who has hesitation in drawings and paintings. Then, it investigates and considers how an children’s pictures expression develops by choosing the drawing paper by which a part of outline was drawn. And this is basic investigation forexploring a possibility of giving a certain cause being introduced and urging the development to the creativity.
Key Words: outline, drawing for coloring, plastic abilities
森野美央 早瀬 円
Preschoolers ’theory of mind, understanding of emotions, and social skills
Miwo MORINO Madoka HAYASE
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship among “theory of mind ” (i.e. the ability to grasp the links between actions and mental states like beliefs and desires), understanding of emotions, and social skills in preschool children. A sample of 190 children, 3 to 6 years of age, completed 6 measures of theory of mind and 4 measures of understanding of emotions. Teachers assessed children ’s social skills (assertion skills, self-control skills, and cooperation skills). The main results were as follows: （1）Theory of mind was correlated with assertion skills and cooperation skills for 5 -year olds, serf-control skills for 3 -year olds and (2) understanding of emotions was correlated with all social skills for 3 -year olds. The results were discussed in relation to (1) changes in the relationship between theory of mind and social skills, (2) changes in the relationship between understanding of emotions and social skills, and (3) caregivers ’support for development of theory of mind and understanding of emotions in preschool children.
Key Words: Theory of mind, Understanding of emotions, Social skills, Preschoolers
Reform of Nursery School Management and Managerial Competence of Nursery School Manager
purpose of this paper is to consider what is needed to reform nursery
school management and what abilities nursery school managers are required
to have from the childcare self-government ’s point of view. In this view
it is generally expected that based on this childcare self-government,
parents, guardians, citizens in the community, nursery school staffs,
childcare administrative officials collaborate with each other for the
childcare development. Today ’s social well-being reforms, especially some
measures taken to prevent the total fertility rate from declining,
childcare support policies, decentralization reforms and deregulation
policies which have started since the late
have had significant influences on the systems and management itself of
nursery schools. With the rapid changes of environments closely connected
with nursery school management, the evaluation of the managerial
competence of nursery school managers has become necessary. In order to
achieve these objectives, the following measures must be carried out.
Firstly, professionalization of nursery school managers, the systems of
qualifications as managers, of the appointment and employment of managers,
of educating and training managers must be established. Secondly, nursery
school managers are required to have their original management concepts
and the abilities to set up their original vision. Thirdly, nursery school
managers are expected to have practical managerial competence and
leadership. From the viewpoint of the realization of childcare
self-government, reforming nursery school management has been called for.
For the purpose, all the staff concerned with childcare should take part
in the nursery school management.
Key Words: nursery school management, nursery school manager, managerial competence childcare self-government, parental participation
佐久間路子 金田利子 金 愛慶
鈴木香奈恵 高橋貴志 師岡 章 無藤 隆
Evaluating a needs-based course for off-the-job training of leaders who help with raising children
Michiko SAKUMA Toshiko KANEDA Aekyong KIM
Kanae SUZUKI Takashi TAKAHASHI Akira MOROOKA Takashi MUTO
This study examined off-the-job training for leaders of child-rearing assistants and examined their training needs. We sent a questionnaire to 500 organizations nationwide, including municipal corporations, NPOs, self-help circles for raising children, and teachers’ colleges that offered training courses, and asked about the purpose, program, subsequent needs, and evaluation methods for the course. The results showed that only 17% of the organizations offered any training course. The purpose, contents, and subsequent needs differed with the major participants (e.g., child-raising assistants in the community, circle leaders, parents who raise young children, or those interested in child welfare). Almost all of the providers evaluated the extent to which the objectives were attained, and the comprehension of the participants. Seventy-six percent of the organizations conducted some analyses of their participants. Based on the results, we propose that training programs consider the qualifications of the participants and that we need to develop investigative methods to evaluate the responses of participants multilaterally.
Keywords: child-raising assistants, off-the-job training of leaders, evaluating a needs-based course
田尻由美子 無藤 隆
Study on Natural
Environment and “Child Care Close to Nature ”in the Kindergarten and
Yumiko TAJIRI Takashi MUTO
The nationwide investigation of actual conditions of the natural environment of the kindergarten and the nursery school and their child care activities was done, aiming for the better practice of “child care close to nature ”and for the better way to education about “area nature ”in teachers ’training schools. The playground of the kindergarten was comparatively abundant in nature, and their frequency of strolling was lower than that of the nursery school. The natural environment of the playground of the nursery school was not enough, but the frequency of strolling seeking for the natural environment outside the playground was high. Moreover, it was clear that there would be a possibility to improve the frequency of the child care activities by abundant natural environments of the playground.
Key words: child care close to nature, natural environment, nationwide investigation, playground strolling outside the playground
Effectiveness of the itinerant consultations for teachers in charge of special-needs children―The case studies of consultations with a manual for teachers―
Junko NOZAWA Katsumi TOKUDA
This study analyzed the case studies of itinerant consultations, and examined an effective itinerant consultation system. The subjects were 3 teachers in charge of special-needs children in public preschool and nursery schools. The consultant offered the child-care support manual with the aim of collaborative consultation. First, each teacher defined the target behaviors. Second, programs for special-needs children were discussed. And third, each teacher practiced the programs in the classroom. The questionnaires asked about the satisfaction of consultations. The main results were as followings:(1) The need for consultations differed among 3 teachers. (2) During the post test, each teacher acquired proper skills. And proper skills of each child increased. (3) It was necessary for consultants to know about needs of teachers and to collaborate with teachers and other professionals. Based on the findings, the following elements were identified as important for future itinerant consultations: 1) to establish support model that are available when necessary; 2) to use the manuals as a in-service education for preschool and nursery school teachers; 3) to ensure cooperation among teachers, agencies, and consultants within community.
Key words: the itinerant consultations, support manual, in-service education for preschool and nursery school teachers
A historical study on the preschools ’spread in prior to the Second World War with the number of preschools and the enrollment ratio as indexes to find factors generating regional differences
This study is aimed at analyzing historical circumstances of preschools ’spread and expansion in prior to the Second World War with the number of preschools and the enrollment ratio as indexes to find factors generating regional differences. The more kindergarten increased nationwide as a result of the governmental ordinance (Kindergarten Act in 1926), the more exposed the differences in establishment mode between areas became and the more wider regional gaps in the enrollment ratio became, and from the 1930s especially, the regional gaps have largely depended on each area’s industrial structures. The elitism of kindergarten spread with regional variations while including issues such as differences between regional industrial structures and social strata. It is suggested that the spread and expansion of preschools are possibly related to the hegemony of the specific social class.
the enrollment ratio of preschools, spread and diffusion of preschools,
佐藤喜代 湯川秀樹 小田 豊
The Kindergarten as The Early Childhood Educational Institution in The Community
Kiyo SATOH Hideki YUKAWA Yutaka ODA
The purpose of this study focused on the School Creation Project to pursue the ways of involving kindergarten teachers into school management, the kind of understanding and support sought in developing the relationship with parents, and the kindergarten as the early childhood educational institution. The targeted subjects were Kindergarten A teachers and parents from 2000 to 2004 .The analysis was performed through questionnaire surveys to teachers from Kindergarten A and other kindergarten teachers. These were classified into years of teaching experiences and analyzed the quality and profession as kindergarten teachers. For the parents, questionnaires were given to those involved with Educational Volunteers. The answers to the four questions analyzed the understanding of children by the parents and their interaction with Kindergarten A. Through the School Creation Project, the kindergarten teachers developed their own professional perspectives; they improved their quality as teachers as well as their practical knowledge. The curricula at Kindergarten A met the needs of the times. Parents grasped the lifestyle of their children in the kindergarten, and they seemed to mature together with their children.
Key words: school creation project, kindergarten curriculum, kindergarten teacher, relationship between teacher and parents
of childcare persons’ efficacy scale to develop the
The purpose of this study is to develop the scale of childcare persons ’efficacy on childcare contents “human relations ”, and is to inspect the applied possibility of the new scale for improving quality of childcare. At first, as the preliminary investigation I asked the answer what is the demanded power to childcare persons in directing/supporting from the viewpoint of 64 childcare persons (who are the nucleus to the veteran). Next, I asked the answer by 7-point scale rating on 80 items in directing/supporting of childcare contents “human relations ” for 276 childcare persons, choosing 313 students who are willing to be childcare persons. As the result, such 12 items were selected carefully including contents “construct the basis of human relations” “grasp children’s growth from the viewpoint of development” “train basic habits of living and attitude” “improve the relations of each children” “support the expansion of their relations” and “support the growth of their ego” (I named CPE-HR 12). In addition, the enough reliability and validity were shown. Therefore, I was able to show the new scale broadly for applying as a tool of their self-study from students aiming to be childcare persons to the childcare person who are working now. I showed a practical model to be useful for improving the ability of childcare persons and proposed to use this scale finally.
Key Words: childcare contents “human relations”, childcare persons’ efficacy, quality of childcare
Moral Education in Kindergartens in the Meiji Era
This article tries to examine the story-telling on morality as a moral education in kindergartens in the relation with the social situation in the Meiji Era. This study classifies the social situation in the Meiji Era into 3 stages, a period of introduction of Western culture, a period of revival of Confucian ethics and a period of the rise of nationalism, and reviews the story- telling on morality in each period. The following sources will be used to study the content of story-telling on morality for each period: 1) story-telling materials on morality at the kindergarten attached to Tokyo Women’s Teachers’ School for the first period, and 2) a book titled “Youchien-shoho” for the second period, 3) articles found in magazines for the kindergarten teachers in Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe and 4) story-telling materials on morality at the Shoei Kindergarten for the third period. While elementary schools were developed as public schools, early childhood education was carried by private kindergartens. The moral education through the story-telling in kindergartens during the Meiji Era shows a strong influence of the political and social situation of the time. Public kindergartens seemed to lead the trend of moral education throughout the Meiji era and private kindergartens, many of which were established in the period of the rise of nationalism, practiced moral education based on nationalism and militarism. On the other hand Christian kindergartens sustained the concept of developing personality of children that aimed to build self-trust and independence. At one point Miss Howe fused the story of creation with the story of the Emperor Jinmu as a compromise with the Japanese ethic. This topic is to be examined in the future.
Keyword: moral education, story-telling on morality, early childhood education, the Meiji Era, Christian childhood education
Study on Infant Education in “Immanuel
Kant ’s Lecture-Notes on Pedagogy”:
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the idea of infant education in Immanuel Kant Lecture-Notes on Pedagogy in 1803. This book was edited by Theodor Rink, who was one of Kant’s pupils. This paper analyzes the process in which Kant formed his original idea on this theme, by examining 1) the influence of Emile, written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau in 1762 ,and 2) Kant ’s concept of “development” (“Entwicklung”).1) Emile is well-known as the most influential book to Kant from the 1760s and the 1770s. This book commend the importance of negative education (natural education) in the early childhood. Kant wholly accepts the basic idea of negative education in this book.2) As for the word “development”, he limits its definition to what concerns “nature”. On the other hand, to be cultivated, civilized, and moralized are regarded not as development, but as“ the mission of mankind”.
Key words: Immanuel Kant, Infant education, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, development, nature
Life Education for Young Children ―A Consideration through Picture Books―
In modern society where the direct experiences of life and death are becoming less and less frequent, recognition of the meaning of “life” and “death” of living creatures appears to be gradually fading away not only among adults, but also among children. There is no reference in the field of practical study presenting concrete methods of “life” and “death” education for young children. However, in schools for young children where religious education, for example Christian education, is practiced, gentleness towards weak things, noting the dignity of life, and thinking of absent among the chief points of education which are encouraged. In the present paper, the author presents the changes in children’s words and attitudes to life and death drawn from one year ’s observational research.
Key words: Life Education, Young Children, Picture Books, Observational Research
島田ミチコ 前橋 明 三宅孝昭
Research regarding the appropriateness of the living conditions of young children and childcare program in the Seiwa kindergarten
Michiko SHIMADA Akira MAEHASHI Takaaki MIYAKE Hiroko ISHII Nanae HOSOKAWA
It is important to grasp the daily living conditions of young children to make a desirable childcare program. As a viewpoint to “the free activity ”that a Seiwa kindergarten regarded as important in childcare most, the living conditions of young children and in particular a state of children from getting up to going to kindergarten and relevance with fatigue level of child were analyzed. As a result of this research, as for the current Seiwa kindergartener, there were a few children who appealed for fatigue. Therefore, a childcare program of a Seiwa kindergarten takes a physical awakening state of children into is when it is the childcare program that was suitable for the living conditions of the kindergartener who added continuance time of physical strength more. However, as a result of having examined a habit of children in detail problems were watched for the getting up time, contents of a play, the television watching and hearing,evacuation of morning.
Key words: living conditions, young children, childcare program, the free activity, fatigue
The Perception Gap Concerning Curriculum among Teachers and Parents of Day Care Center, Kindergarten and Elementary School Children
This research aims to promote the smooth transition for children from day care and kindergarten to elementary school, by analyzing the different perceptions concerning curriculum among these children’s teachers and parents. Three factors, “Attitude”, “Self-Realization”, and “Play Activity” were extracted as a result of the factor analysis, resulting in the clarification of the following two points. 1. Day care center teachers think that more severe training is being given at the day care center than at the elementary school. Therefore, the children from day care centers are expected to have a smoother transition to elementary school than their counterparts from kindergarten who have less severe training. 2. Although all the parents think that severe training should be done at elementary school, there are differences in their expectations of training content. Parents who sent their children to kindergarten consider “Attitude” and “Play Activity” development to be more important than “Self-Realization” in elementary school. On the other hand, those parents who sent their child to day care centers expect “Attitude” training to be the focus of the three.
Key Words: kindergarten, day care center, elementary school, curriculum, transition to elementary school
Last Update: 2006/02/15